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The American Revolution

EO 2

Brent Myers

on 7 September 2016

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Transcript of The American Revolution

Prelude to the American Revolution
The British had a "hands off" approach to colonization
Americans got used to varying forms of self-rule
Americans disliked and sometimes
rejected interference from Parliament
sitting armies
writs of assistance
royal representatives
French and Indian War Debt
Most colonies elected
their own legislatures
Parliament controlled foreign affairs,
not many domestic affairs
Americans could NOT vote
in British elections
Cost of defeating the French doubled the British national debt
Colonists paid taxes, but only 1/20th of what a British citizen paid
Parliament decided to look to the colonies to help pay the debt
Passed an indirect tax - the Sugar Act
I will analyze the factors leading to the American Revolution
The Proclamation of 1763
The British wanted to prevent anymore wars with Native Americans
The Proclamation stated that colonists could NOT settle the land gained in the French and Indian War
Colonists became frustrated with the inability to move westward
Colonists upset with the British attempt to control them
Thus many ignored the new rule
The Sugar Act of 1764
The Quartering Act of 1765
The Stamp Act of 1765
Townshend Acts
Boston Massacre
The British wanted to tax molasses and prevent smuggling
The Act actuallylowered the direct tax on sugar
The Act only directly affected the wealthy merchants
The merchants, however, raised prices on the customers
The result was increased smuggling
The Rising Patriotic Fever
Olive Branch Petition
Declaration of Independence
Parliament wanted a standing army in the colonies
The Act required the colonies to provide shelter, food and provisions for the soldiers
Americans suspicious of British troops
Viewed them as a threat, not as protection
Colonists complained that they were not consulted about the protection
This Act was a direct tax on the people
Required an official stamp on all legal and published printed goods
(Already required in Britian)
Colonists attacked and harassed Stamp Act collectors
Argument of "taxation without representation" first used
Sons of Liberty formed
Act repealed in 1766
New Prime Minister Charles Townshend felt an indirect tax was not as upsetting to the colonists
Parliament imposed a tax for imported item at the point of entry
would be used to pay colonial officials
prices to customers rose again
The colonists were now aware of any attempts to tax
Boycotted all British goods with a tax
British Parliament growing more and more angry and impatient
Parliament sent soldiers to Boston
in reaction to the protests
Boston residents routinely
harassed the soldiers
On March 5, 1770 British troops
hit with stones and snowballs
The solders opened fire on the colonists
Five colonists killed
Boston citizens enraged
mobs grow
The soldiers put on trial
John Adams is the defense attorney
All of the soldiers are acquitted for self-defense
The Tea Act of 1773
This Act required the colonies to buy tea from the British East India Company
Price of tea went down!
the company was essentially owned by the government - and was losing money
(3/4 of all tea used in the colonies was smuggled
Colonies saw another
attempt at British Control
November 1773 three ships entered Boston harbor
Sons of Liberty prevented the cargo from being unloaded
On December 16, fifty 'sons' dressed as
Mohawk Indians boarded the ships
In three hours the men emptied 342 chests of tea into the water
Nothing else on board was touched
(The Boston Tea Party)
The British were outraged with the tea party
Parliament passed a series of Acts meant to punish Boston
Boston Harbor closed until the tea is paid for
Massachusetts now a royal colony
British loyalists would be tried in England for crimes in the colonies
New quartering act required housing soldiers in colonists' homes
Quebec given land that
Massachusetts wanted
All of the other colonies pledged support for Massachusetts
sent food and provisions
sons of liberty called the situation
the perfect crisis
The First Continental Congress
The colonists wanted to protest
the Coercive Acts as a whole group
They agreed to work
together to help Massachusetts
A Continental Congress was held in Philadelphia
Called for a boycott of all British goods
Sent food and supplies
only Georgia did not attend
Lexington and Concord
Parliament rejected all petitions from the colonies regarding the coercive acts
Massachusetts placed under military rule
April 1775, British troops left Boston looking for armories and rebels
At Lexington colonial minuteman assembled in front of advancing redcoats
Disputed first shot led to 8 colonists dead
At Concord colonists now attack the redcoats
British troops retreat to Boston
The daylong retreat led to 273 British casualties
A 2nd Continental Congress is called to deal with the new, violent situation
After Lexington and Concord a 2nd Continental Congress was called
The Olive Branch Petition was drafted and sent to King George III
It declared their loyalty to the King, asked for the end of the Intolerable Acts
George III was furious when the petition was read to him
Had grown tired of the exchanges and pleas from the now violent insubordinates
Ordered more troops to America to crush the rebellion
June 17, 1775
Americans build a fortification on high ground above Boston
It takes the British, under General Howe, three assaults to take the fortifications
British lose over 1100 men, The Americans lose 440.
After news of the battle the King declares the colonies to be a foreign enemy.
General Washington wanted the British out of Boston
Henry Knox brought Washington canon from Fort Ticonderoga
British evacuated to Canada
Colonists who favored the rebellion
poorly organized and equipped
soldiers enlisted for only small amounts of time
Colonists who remained loyal to the king
the majority were from the middles and southern colonies
businessmen dependent on English trade
1/3 of the nation chose sides only when forced by
the occupation by either of the other two sides
Many at the 2nd Congress felt the colonies must separate from Britain in order to protect their rights
Created a committee to draft a declaration of independence in case Congress felt it was necessary
Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston
On July 2, 1776 the 2nd Continental Congress accepted Jefferson’s declaration
After further editing, it was ratified on July 4
Printed copies were sent throughout the colonies and to Britain
We must, indeed, all hang together or, most assuredly, we shall all hang separately.
Benjamin Franklin
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