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Meteorology

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Alix Williams

on 17 May 2011

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Transcript of Meteorology

Meteorology Defintion of Meteoroloy Meteoroloy is the branch of the natural sciences that deals with the Earth’s atmosphere & its related phenomena. The 4 Factors that Cause Weather: *Temperature
* Air Pressure
* Wind
* Moisture The Atmospheric Composition The Earth is:
79% Nitrogen
20% Oxygen
1% Everything Else Atmospheric Layers There are four layers in the Earth Atmosphere:

Troposphere- it is the bottom layer this is where we live. It is where weather occurs and get colder with atiltude

Stratosphere- the is the second layer. This layer contains jet stream and ozone layer. It get warmer with atiltude

Mesosphere- is the third layer. It gets colder with atiltude

Thermosphere- is the fourth layer it has three sections
Ionosphere-lower thermosphere, made of charged ions.
Exosphere-upper thermosphere, satellites orbit at this location.
Van Allen Radiation- Belts-layers of high radiation that help block solar particles. Heating of the Earth Direct Sunlight Energy- it causes more heat becasue at the equator at 90 degrees

Indirect Sunlight Energy- doesn't produce that much heat because less 90 degree angle Heat Transfer Air Pressure Credit to Mr. Porter Theses are the four: Radiation- Sun gives off light energy because of nuclear fusion.

Convection- the transfer of heat energy in a gas or liquid.

Conduction- the direct transfer of heat energy from one substance to another.

“Greenhouse Effect”- CO2 collects in the atmosphere & traps heat energy at the surface. (CO2 is 0.036%) Air pressure:
The pressure that causes gravity is air it pushes down on the earth.

Movement of Air:
Low pressure- is causes hen warm air expand which is less dense. The warm air air holds more moisture. It usually associated with cloudy, rainy weather.

High pressure- is cause when cold air contracts which is more dense. The cold air hold less moisture. It usually associated with good/fair weather.

Measure Pressure -arometer (Mercury or Aneroid) measures the change in air pressure in either millibars or millimeters/inches of mercury. Wind Definition: the movement of air from one place to another

The air pressure moves from high to low.

Gobal Winds:
Created by the unequal heating of the Earth’s surface, difference in air pressure& the Earth’s rotation.

Coriolis Effect--due to the Earth’s rotation, moving objects such as air and water will shift in a certain direction

Northern Hemisphere is the right
Southern Hemisphere is the left

Global Wind Belts:
There three type of winds Trade Winds which are winds that blow from east to west on either side of the equator. There is winds that blow from east to west on either side of the equator. There is also Prevailing Westerlies which are winds that blow from west to east between 30o & 60o north & south latitudes. The last of is Polar Easterlies which are winds that blow from east to west in the polar regions.

Jet stream:
It is an narrow stream of high pressure wind found in the lower stratosphere.The globe is pushed by large air masses.


Measuring Wind:
Anemometer- is measures wind speed.

Wind Vane- is measures the direction of wind.
Measured in mi/hr, km/hr,
and knots. Moisture Humidity:
The measure of the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere.

Specific Humidity- Is the air of mass given in a water vapor of the actual mass that is measured.

Relative Humidity- It is the given temperature compared ratio/percentage of the actual amount of water vapor in a given mass of air compared to the maximum amount of water vapor

Psychrometer--a type of hygrometer that has a wet bulb thermometer & a dry bulb thermometer

Dew Point Temperature--the temperature to which air has to be cooled in order to be completely saturated (filled)
with water.


Clouds:
Clouds are on are aerosols which are collected by suspended droplets of water. The air pressure, the air temperature, the amount of moisture & aerosols depend on clouds fromation.

They are three types of clouds-

Cirrus- which are high clouds that are thin and wispy.

Stratus- which are low level clouds that looked layered.

Cumulus – large, fluffy clouds of vertical development.

The prefix atlo means middle clouds.

The prefix/suffix for nimbus is clouds that produce precipitation. Cirrus Stratus Cumulus Precipitation:
Rain and Hailstones - are cause by cumulonimbus clouds. Then strong winds carry raoins droops above the freezing line. Then the rain rops freeze and turn into ice pellets. The stronger the wind the bgger the hail stone.

Sleet- is when rain drops freezes and tun into ice pellets when it falls through pockets of freezing air.

Freezing Rain- is when rain freezes as it makes contact to the freezing surface.

Snow- is when cloud droplets freeze in the clouds and stick together forming flakes. Air Masses Definition: a large body of air that is the SAME throughout

There three types: Air formed, Temperature, Humidty

Maritime Polar-it forms over the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. It bring cold and moist air.

Maritime Tropical--it forms near the equator. It brings warm and moist air.

Continental Polar--it forms over northern Canada. It brings cold and dry air.

Continental Tropical--it forms over land in Mexico. It brings hot and dry air.


Fronts:
Fonts are the boundary where two air masses collide and the front is named for the aggressive air mass.

Warm Front-Warm air mass overtakes and moves over a cold air mass.

Cold Front- Cold air meets and replaces a mass of warm air.

Stationary Front--neither air mass moves.

Occluded Front--a cold front catches up with a warm front and overtakes it.

Dry Line- Dry air invades moist air. Severe Weather Weather that can be considered life threatening and can cause damage to buildings is severe weather. Severe weather includes tornados, hurricanes, flooding. ect.

Watches and Warnings:
Watch- a watch of the codintions for serve weather.
Warning- when the severe weather is ourring in specific area.

Thunderstorms:
Is a rainstorm that can cause hail, strong winds, heavy rainfall, lighting.

Ligthing- it causes when rains drops make collision with static electricity caused by the separation of electrical charges. When positive and negative charge connect hey cause a lighting bolt.

Thunder- is cause when the lighting bolt superheat surronds the air causing it to expand so rapidly that it creates a sonic boom.

Tornadoes:
Tornados -are funnels of high speed circulating winds high winds & updrafts collide creating a circulating low pressure. The low pressure extends to the ground picking up dust & debris forming a tornado.

Hurricanes- are tropical cyclone. There is a low pressure which is the eye of the hurricane. It usually causes several thunderstorms and strong winds.

Flooding- it is caused by too much rain over an extended period of time. It causes lakes, streams, rivers, etc. to over flow.

Flash Flooding- it occurs in town and cities. They are cause by too much rain in a short period of time. It causes low lying areas to overflow and rushing water in other areas. The ground can not soak up this water. Boom The End
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