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Rhetorical Fallacies

Rhetorical Fallacies Used in Persuasive Texts
by

Ms. Standerfer

on 31 January 2013

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Transcript of Rhetorical Fallacies

Fallacies Used in Persuasive Texts Rhetorical Fallacies Rhetorical Fallacies-- Why are they important? Exaggeration Analyzing a Speech Readers/audiences need to be critical when reading and/or viewing persuasive texts because the authors are using these techniques to persuade. Fallacies are also important to understand as a writer of persuasive texts. Ad Hominem A rhetorical fallacy in which the intent is to attack the character or circumstance of the opponent in order to distract from the argument. This personal attack is intended to devalue the claim without regard for the evidence provided. EXAMPLE:
Person A: It is important to give vaccines to children.
Person B: Of course you would say that. You are a nurse.
Person A: I provided research and evidence to support my opinion. Did you read that?
Person B: That doesn’t matter. You are a nurse and just like everyone else in the medical world you are trying to make a buck. An overstatement or a representation of more than is true Determine the argument and the structural approach of the argument
Determine the evidence provided in support of the argument
Explain how the structural approach and evidence supports the argument an argument that is not sound but may still be convincing Everybody will get to go to the party, but me. If I've answered this question once, I've answered it a thousand times. Stereotyping a rhetorical fallacy in which one classifies a person or group according to a common aspect that is oversimplified, rigidly applied, and often uncomplimentary. Examples:
Girls are not good at sports.
Boys do not like to read or write.
All women only care about their appearance
Blondes are dumb. Categorical Claim a rhetorical fallacy in which a claim is based on the often faulty logic of relating two things solely because they are in the same category Example: Chihuahuas are good inside dogs. German Shepherds are dogs; therefore, German Shepherds would be good inside dogs too Testimonial a statement in support of a particular truth, fact, or claim Appeal the means of persuasion in an argument. According to Aristotle, there are three fundamental appeals to convince a person: reason (logos), ethics (ethos), and emotion (pathos). Example (on trying teens as adults):

Pathos - "It is just not fair to the child, just imagine how it would hurt the family." OR "Our children are our greatest asset. Giving up on our children is like giving up on the world."

Ethos - "It is inhuman to try children. It is against society's standards to hold children fully responsible."

Logos - "A child can not be held fully responsible for his actions. The failure of a child is partly failure of the society or parents. A child does not have the full mental capabilities and ethical development an adult may have." Logical Fallacy an incorrect or problematic argument that is not based on sound reasoning Example: Because everything is bigger in Texas, you can expect a bigger salary in Texas Emotional Fallacy unfairly appeal to the audience's emotions Ethical Fallacy unreasonably advance the writer's own authority or character Example: The new PowerTangerine computer gives you the power you need. If you buy one, people will envy your power. They will look up to you and wish they were just like you. You will know the true joy of power. TangerinePower. Appeal to Authority referring to a respected source or authority and relying on their position even though they are not a qualified expert on the subject Sasha: "I played the lottery today and I know I am going to win something."
Siphwe: "What did you do, rig the outcome?"
Sasha: "No, silly. I called my Super Psychic Buddy at the 1-900-MindPower number. After consulting his magic Californian Tarot deck, he told me my lucky numbers."
Siphwe: "And you believed him?"
Sasha: "Certainly, he is a certified Californian Master-Mind Psychic. That is why I believe what he has to say. I mean, like, who else would know what my lucky numbers are?" Scare Tactics the use of facts, statistics, and descriptions that create a sense of fear in the audience "If you vote for this candidate, then your children's lives will be at stake!" When Oprah Winfrey mentions a book, it becomes a best seller. False Need creating an unnecessary desire for things VERY POPULAR IN ADVERTISEMENTS Types of Arguments:
cause/effect
analogy
repetition
examples
statistics
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