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The Odyssey

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Eleanor Fleming

on 3 November 2014

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Transcript of The Odyssey

The Odyssey: A Hero's Journey
Refusal of the
Call/Hesitancy to Accept
Meeting with the Mentor
Call to Adventure
The call to adventure is when
the war ends and Odysseus
tries to return home, but he is hindered by the goddess Calypso. She is infatuated with him and unwilling to let him leave and return home. Odysseus is the only Greek soldier that hasn't returned home from the war after 10 years of being away.
The Beginning
Bibliography
Campbell, Joseph.
The Hero with a Thousand Faces
. 2008, 1948. Novato, California. New World Library

Homer.
The Odyssey
. Trans. Ian Johnston. Arlington, VA: Richer Resources Publications, 2006. Print.

Homer
. The Odyssey.
Book I. Line 26. P. 9.
Homer
. The Odyssey.
Book I. Lines 10-19. P. 8.
Homer
. The Odyssey.
Book XXII. Lines 260-266. P. 437.
Homer
.The Odyssey.
Book I. Lines 16-24. P. 8.
Homer
. The Odyssey.
Book X. Lines 308-312. P. 195.
Homer.
The Odyssey.
Book XII. Lines 387-395. P. 245.
Homer
.The Odyssey.
Book XXII. Lines 43-60. P. 430.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2014. <http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Mythology/Images/OdysseusSuitorsSchwab.jpg>.
Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2014. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/Francesco_Hayez_028.jpg>.
Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2014. <http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lookandlearn-preview/A/A005/A005046.jpg>.
Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2014. <http://www.repfineart.com/reproduction-oil-paintings/arnold-bocklin/odysseus-and-calypso>.
Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2014. <http://mythologyapfive.wikispaces.com/The+Heroes+of+the+Trojan+War>.
Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2014. <http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Ships/Ships.htm>.
Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2014. <http://aninspiredyouth.blogspot.com/>.
Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2014. <http://philosophyforchange.wordpress.com/2013/06/11/odysseus-and-the-cyclops-mastery-humility-and-fate/
Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2014. <http://becuo.com/charybdis-odysseus-and-scylla>.
Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2014. <http://odysseythemesandcharacters.edublogs.org/files/2013/02/ithica-1ymr51g.jpg>.
Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2014. <http://darkclassics.blogspot.com/2013/01/bela-cikos-sesija-odysseus-kills.html>.
By: Eleanor Fleming and Sarah Fitzmaurice
Following Odysseus
The war is over and Odysseus is trying to return home to Ithaca but he is having a lot of trouble with it because the Gods are interfering and making every attempt difficult. Also, he keeps meeting a whole bunch of monsters and must use his cunning abilities to outsmart and escape them.
The Hero's journey begins in the Ordinary World. This is where he lives his normal life and is both the beginning and the end of the cycle. He is here when he receives the call to adventure. The reason he needs to go on this adventure is that there is a problem in the world that he must solve.
Definition
Example from the Odyssey
Example:
Definition
The Call to Adventure is the start of the rising action and is announced by the Herald (person or event). It is something or someone that disrupts the hero's ordinary life and challenges him to do something to fix this disruption.
Definition
Example

The Refusal of the Call, or reluctance to accept, is when the hero does not want to partake on the journey. He/she feels more comfortable in the Ordinary World and may be insecure in his/her abilities to complete the quest successfully.
There isn't a specific refusal to the call as Odysseus' voyage is to go home, which has been his goal since the war finished. The reason he wasn't able to get back home was that he was captured by the goddess Calypso. She became infatuated with him and wouldn't
let him leave and go back
home.
Mentor Archetype
Definition
Example
Definition
Example
Crossing the Threshold
Definition
Example
Threshold Guardian Archetype
Herald Archetype
Definition
Example
Definition
Example

The Epic Hero Archetype
Definition
Example
Tests, Allies, and Enemies
An example of the Threshold Guardian in The Odyssey is Calypso because she is the first obstacle on Odysseus's journey home. She falls in love with Odysseus and tries to keep him from continuing on his journey, but he manages to escape her. He then continues on his journey home to Ithica. In
The Odyssey
, it says "But Odysseus, who longed to get back to his wife and reach his home, was being held in a hollow cave by that mighty nymph Calypso, noble goddess, who wished to make Odysseus her husband. But as the seasons came and went, the year arrived in which, according to what gods had once ordained, he was to get back to Ithaca, his home— not that he would be free from troubles even there, among his family." (The Odyssey, Lines 16-24). This makes me think that Calypso was the obstacle he must overcome in order to really enter his journey home to Ithaca.
An example of an epic hero in
The Odyssey
is Odysseus because he sacrifices his life in the war and is doing everything he can to return home. During his journey, he risks his life many times for the sake of his men and he also embodies the ideals of his society. In
The Odyssey
, he is even described as "godlike Odysseus" (
The Odyssey
, Line 26).
The Meeting with the Mentor is when the Hero, after refusing or being reluctant to accept the challenge, is encouraged by the Mentor to go on the quest. He is also trained for the quest.
An example of a Mentor is when, during Odysseus's fight against the suitors, Athena appears as the Mentor and encourages Odysseus to not give up hope and to continue fighting. In
The Odyssey
, it says "Then Athena, Zeus' daughter, came up to them, looking just like Mentor and with his voice, as well. Odysseus saw her and rejoiced. He cried: “Mentor, help fight off disaster. Remember me, your dear comrade. I've done good things for you. You're my companion, someone my own age.” (
The Odyssey
, Lines 260-266). This shows that Odysseus considers Athena a mentor and she helps get his confidence back up.
An example of the Herald in
The Odyssey
is the ending of the war. When the war ends, Odysseus must start his journey home to Ithaca. In
The Odyssey
, it says "The other warriors, all those who had escaped being utterly destroyed, were now back safely home, facing no more dangers from battle or the sea. But Odysseus, who longed to get back to his wife and reach his home, was being held in a hollow cave by that mighty nymph Calypso, noble goddess, who wished to make Odysseus her husband." (The Odyssey, Lines 10-19) I think that being trapped prompted Odysseus to really feel his need to get home.
The epic hero is the protagonist and the main character in the story. They sacrifice themselves and try to separate themselves from the ordinary world in order to sacrifice themselves for the journey ahead. They can be anything from a wanderer to a king. Epic heroes change depending on who the author is and what themes are being
conveyed.
The herald's job is to call the hero to the journey, and to inform him of what needs to be done. The herald doesn't need to be a person, but it needs to be something that awakes the hero and pushes them to go into the special world and face the journey
ahead.
Odysseus doesn’t have a real meeting
with a mentor because Odysseus wants
to go home.The reason this wouldn’t
apply here is because Odysseus really
doesn’t refuse the call, so therefore he
doesn’t have to have a mentor.
Throughout Athena acts partially as a
mentor to encourage Odysseus to
continue to keep going and gives him
advice while on his journey.

The mentor is the character who inspires the hero to go on their journey. They provide the motivation, insight, and sometimes training to help the hero to go on their journey.
The threshold guardian's job is to test the meddle and worth for the hero to be going on the journey. They test them and are usually the first obstacle the hero needs to pass.The guardian is there to let the hero know that the journey will require great courage, power
and strength.
The example of crossing the threshold is when Odysseus finally escapes from Calypso and embarks on his journey back home. On his journey back he meets a crew to go with him in his journey. He plans to return home so that he once again be back in Ithaca and is fully comitted to getting to his home.
Example
This is the point where Odysseus is on his journey and encounters both friends and foes. At first he gains his crew/friends with the Phaeacians and is able to gain supplies and crew mates to go with him. Later in the book he faces various other obstacles such
as the Cyclops, Sirens, ect.
The Crossing of the Threshold is when the Hero going over to the Special World from the Ordinary World. It symbolizes that the Hero is ready to go on the journey and is committed to completing the quest. Crossing the Threshold means that the Hero will never be the same again.
Definition
Tests, Allies, and Enemies are the obstacles and people that the Hero encounters on his journey. They can either help the Hero on his/her way with new knowledge and experience, or they can delay the Hero's progress on the quest and make him question if he/she should continue on his/her quest. Either way, each and every one has some impact on the Hero that helps change him/her. Also, Allies may join the Hero to help him/her on his quest.
Approach the Innermost Cave
Definition
The Approach of the Innermost Cave is when the Hero must prepare the most. The Hero must make sure he is ready to face what lies within the cave and to do this, he must devise a plan. The Approach of the Innermost Cave is also a time for laughing with friends and a little romance.
Example
Ordeal
Definition
The Ordeal is when the Hero faces his/her greatest fear and a life-or-death experience. This is the climax in the journey and it could either fail or succeed. In the Ordeal, the Hero must die in order to be reborn and defeat the enemy and complete the journey.
Example
The Reward
Definition
The Reward is what is gained by overcoming the Ordeal. It can be something physical, such as a sword, or mental, such as knowledge. Either way it symbolizes the Hero facing what he/she fears most and winning.
The Road Back
Definition
The Road Back is when the hero must decide whether he wants to return to the Ordinary world, for his/her accomplishments in the Special World make it difficult to return to his/her normal life. There must be an event that pushes the Hero home to the Ordinary World, and forces him/her to action and raising the stakes of his/her journey. This is an important time in the Hero's life where he must decide whether or not to complete the journey or not.
The Resurrection
The place that Odysseus needs most to prepare is just before he must fight Scylla and Charybdis. He has to prepare and in order to do that he discusses with Circe how to fight them and even whether it will be possible. He basically is preparing for the worst part of his journey
and the most difficult one
as well.
As somewhat mentioned before the
Innermost cave and the most difficult part
in Odysseus' journey is when he and his men must fight Scylla and Charybdis. These are the monsters that Odysseus and his men must fight in order to get back home. This is a difficult time for Odysseus as he loses 6 men to Scylla and soon after this his ship is destroyed by Poseidon as a punishment for hurting his son Polphemus. This is difficult for him as he has lost everything for the most part and is in a very dificult position. Although Odysseus doesn't
die he almost does and faces the most
difficult time in his journey.
The Trickster Archetype
Definition
Example
The Shadow Archetype
Definition
Example
The Return with the Elixir
The shadow is the thing most hated by epic hero. This is the person or thing that represents the things we do not like and want to destroy or get rid of. Many times this is the thing that scares the hero the most and is many times the antagonist. The shadow can be anything that scares the hero making them not want to continue on their journey.
Example
The reward that is really gained for Odysseus is getting back home to Ithaca. Although his wife and everyone but Telemachus has no idea who he is he enjoys the fact that he is back home. He must fight and plan in order to get his home and family back from the suitors and evryone else who is attempting to take over what he
has.
Example
Since Odysseus' reward is to be back home in Ithaca he doesn't require a journey home, but his "journey" is that he must fight the suitors and everyone else who is trying to take over his home and family. He must fight and kill all the suitors with only the help of three other men. Although the task will be difficult it is crucial for his return. If he ever planned on revealing who he was then he would need to kill the suitors.
Example
An example of the Trickster archetype is Circe because she tricks Odysseus's men into turning into swine. She manipulates them and tricks Odysseus into going to bed with her. In
The Odyssey
, it says "But with the food she mixed a vicious drug, so they would lose all memories of home. When they'd drunk down the drink she gave them, she took her wand, struck each man, then penned them in her pigsties." (
The Odyssey
, Lines 308-312) I think that this represents how she is a Trickster because she tricked Odysseus's men into eating the food and turning into pigs.
The Shapeshifter Archetype
Definition
Example
An example of a Shapeshifter in The Odyssey is Odysseus's men because they don't always follow his orders. He trusts them, but they betray him a lot. In The Odyssey, it says "It seems, Eurylochus, you're forcing me to stand alone. But come, let all of you now swear this solemn oath — if by chance we find a herd of cattle or a large flock of sheep, not one of you will be so overcome with foolishness that you'll kill a cow or sheep. No. Instead, you'll be content to eat the food supplies which goddess Circe gave.’" (
The Odyssey
, Lines 387-395). After Odysseus says this, they go and kill the cattle anyway.
The resurrection in this book is when everyone realizes who Odysseus is and he starts to kill every one of the suitors and starts to take back over his properties. He hides his wife and once all the suitors are dead he is again able to regain his spot as king of Ithaca regaining everything he once
lost.
The trickster is the jokester who often plays tricks and causing mischief. They can be an ally or companion of the but they can also be an enemy of the hero causing them harm. They often aren't but sometimes the trickster can be the hero or the villain. They often cause the comic relief in the story and are constantly trying to cause some
type of mischief and always are
up to play some kind
of prank.
An example of the Shadow in
The Odyssey
is the suitors taking away Odysseus's house. It is what Odysseus fears most. “You dogs, because you thought I'd not come back from Troy to my own home, you've been ravaging my house, raping women, and in your devious way wooing my wife, while I was still alive, with no fear of the gods, who hold wide heaven, or of any man who might take his revenge in days to come. And now a fatal net has caught you all.” (
The Odyssey
, Lines 43-60). This shows that Odysseus really cares about his home and family and is furious. After he says this he kills all of them.
The shapeshifer is the character who is constantly changing their character in significant ways
The shapeshifter is the character who is constantly changing their character in significant ways. They are hard to understand and often dont make scene to the reader as they every often change who they are. They are the character whose commitment is difficult to understand as they change their character a lot and play parts on both sides for and against the hero. They can be a variety of people but many times
they are the hero's love interest.
Definition
The Resurrection is when the Hero proves that he/she deserves to be called a Hero. It is the final test, or Ordeal, and it is the final life-or-death challenge. It can be with the Shadow, or a physical ordeal. He/she must fight not only for his/her life, but for the lives of the people in the Ordinary world as well. Sometimes, Allies will come to aid in this last battle. The Hero may also accept the elixir.
Definition
The Return with the Elixir symbolizes that the Hero has the right to be accepted back into the Ordinary World. The Elixir is the final reward for the Hero and it is the end of the Hero's journey. The Elixir can be a physical thing, such as a potion, or a mental thing, such as wisodm.
Example
The example from the odyssey is when Odysseus finally reveals who he is and regains his kingdom and home. He is once again back home and they are able to live in their home together and free of suitors. Odysseus and Penelope are again ruling after 10 years.
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