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Copy of BLUE BRAIN PRESENTATION

project
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sameera taj

on 2 May 2014

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Transcript of Copy of BLUE BRAIN PRESENTATION

CONTENTS Introduction
What is blue brain?
Why we need virtual brain?
Research work,progress & future
Examples of Blue Brain
Steps Involved
Natural Brain v/s Simulated Brain
Applications of Blue Brain
Hardware & software requirement
Blue Gene
Advantage & disadvantage
Conclusion INTRODUCTION Just as life attempts to understand itself better by modeling it, and in the process create something new, so BLUE BRAIN is an attempt at modeling the workings of a brain and this presentation is an attempt to understand the basic concept of artificial brain.
Human brain, the most valuable creation of God. The man is called intelligent because of the brain. But we loss the knowledge of a brain when the body is destroyed after the death.
So need arises to just go ahead and create a brain. And to a surprising extent, they’ve done it: Labs around the world are populated with autonomously functioning brains based on what we know so far. Robots or avatars activated by these engineered brains are directing movement, perceiving visual objects, and even responding to
rewards—exhibiting behaviors associated with our “thinking” brains. What is blue brain ?? EPFL-IBM joint research project.
BLUE BRAIN has embarked on a quest for the holy grail of neuroscience--the far-off goal of creating a computer simulation of the human brain.
It is an attempt to reverse-engineer and model the neocortical column, to explore how it functions.
The project hopes to tackle one of the most perplexing mysteries of neuroscience: How does human intelligence emerge? How the brain learns ? How it perceives things ?
The project is funded primarily by the Swiss government and secondarily by grants and some donations from private individuals. RESEARCH WORK AND PROGRESS The cerebral cortex, the convoluted "grey matter" that makes up 80% of the human brain, is responsible for our ability to remember, think, reflect, empathize, communicate, adapt to new situations and plan for the future. The brain is populated with billions of neurons, each connected to thousands of its neighbors by dendrites and axons, a kind of biological "wiring". The brain processes information by sending electrical signals from neuron to neuron along these wires. In the cortex, neurons are organized into basic functional units, cylindrical volumes 0.5 mm wide by 2 mm high, each containing about 10,000 neurons that are connected in an intricate but consistent way. These units operate much like microcircuits in a computer. This microcircuit, known as the neocortical column (NCC), is repeated millions of times across the cortex. Blue Gene comprises of near about 8,000 processors.
Capable of doing 23 trillion operations per second.
Each processor is used to simulate one or two neurons.
Able to generate a real-time 3D image of what the simulated brain would look like if it was an actual bundle of biological neurons. 3D computer simulation Many equipments are used that allows for computer-controlled, simultaneous recordings of the tiny electrical currents that form the basis of nerve impulses. Here, a technique known as “patch clamp” provides direct access to seven individual neurons and their chemical synaptic interactions. The patch clamp robot—at work 24 hours a day, seven days a week—helped the Blue Brain team speed through 30 years of research in six months. Inset, a system integrates a bright-field microscope with computer-assisted reconstruction of neuron structure. The entire setup is enclosed inside a “Faraday cage” to reduce electromagnetic interference and mounted on a floating table to minimize vibrations. just two neurons connected to each other SIMULATED BRAINS IN THE REAL WORLD
Simulated brains on computers may be interesting research, but like real brains, they are best understood by how they respond to the real world. To test simulated brains in real world settings, researchers using robot-like devices or being termed as the computer avatars by others . These “embodied” devices run by a brain-based network. These brain- based devices, called “the Darwin series,” are fitted with cameras and microphones that serve as their eyes and ears, and they can sense conductance (“taste”) between their grippers. Darwin/Nomad robots Edelman (Neurosciences Institute) & collaborators, created a series of Darwin automata, brain-based devices, "physical devices whose behavior is controlled by a simulated nervous system”. properties:

1. It engages in a behavioral task.
2. It is situated in a real-world environment.
3. It has a means to sense environmental cues and act upon its environment.
4. Its behavior is controlled by a simulated nervous system having a design that reflects, at some level, the brain’s architecture and dynamics. Darwin VII, a brain-based device that consists of a mobile base, a CCD camera, two microphones on either side of the camera, and sensors embedded in a gripper, which measures the surface conductivity of the metal blocks it manipulates. These sensory signals provide input to the neuronal simulation. In this experiment, the striped blocks have “good” taste (highly conductive), and the spotted blocks have “bad” taste (weakly conductive). Darwin XI, a brain-based device with a simulated hippocampus and its surrounding regions. A POCKET-SIZED SIMULATED BRAIN:NEUROGRID CHIPS To simulate the human brain, to really know how we think, is not a research problem Electricity alone for a supercomputer to simulate a million neurons eats through $200,000 a month, restricting brain simulations to the very few able to get that kind of funding. This led to the nano-chips which will be working as the circuitry of the brain, thanks to the nano technology. A Neurogrid chip (Neurocore) mounted on a test printed circuit board. Each Neurocore has 65,536 programmable neurons in 162 mm^2of silicon. Sixteen Neurocores connected togetherwill form the first hardware system with over one million model neurons operating in real time UPLOADING HUMAN BRAIN The uploading is possible by the use of small robots known as the nanobots.
These robots are small enough to travel through out our circulatory system.
Traveling into the spine and brain, they will be able to monitor the activity and structure of our central nervous system.
They will be able to provide an interface with computer while we still reside in our biological form .
Nanobots could also carefully scan the structure of our brain, providing a complete readout of the connection.
This information, when entered into a computer, could then continue to function as us.
Thus the data stored in the entire brain will be uploaded into the computer. Advantages and Disadvantages : It could also help to cure the Parkinson's disease.

We will be able to transfer ourselves into computers at some point.

It will bring both benefits and harm to human society .

Eventually aim of applying terrific computer power to the simulation of an entire brain.

Very soon this technology will be highly accepted whole over the world. Whole-brain simulation: Although Phase-I was completed and the model is so successful that its biggest restrictions are now technological. The main limitations for digital computers in the simulation of biological processes are the extreme temporal and demanded by some biological processes spatial resolution and the limitations of the algorithms that are used to model biological processes. In order to accurately simulate the trillion synapses in the human brain, you’d need to be able to process about 500 petabytes of data. That’s about 200 times more information than is stored on all of Google’s servers. (Given current technology, a machine capable of such power would be the size of several football fields.) Energy consumption is another huge problem. The human brain requires about 25 watts of electricity to operate. Simulating the brain on a supercomputer with existing microchips would generate an annual electrical bill of about $3 billion . CONCLUSION ! BSBI-10
ATIYA MUNIR
SAMEERA
BUSHRA REHMAN Blue Gene supercomputer Blue Gene comprises of near about 8,000 processors.
Capable of doing 23 trillion operations per second.
Each processor is used to simulate one or two neurons.
Able to generate a real-time 3D image of what the simulated brain would look like if it was an actual bundle of biological neurons. Neocortical column modeling The initial goal of the project, completed in December 2006, was the Simulation of a rat neocortical column, which can be considered the smallest functional unit of the neocortex (the part of the brain thought to be responsible for higher functions such as conscious thought). Such a column is about 2mm tall, has a diameter of 0.5mm and contains about 60,000 neurons in humans; rat neocortical columns are very similar in structure but contain only 10,000 neurons (and 108 synapses). To start with the modeling NCC of a rat of 2 months was taken and was studied. neurons light up in a “global excitatory state”
of blues and yellows. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIRMENT A super computer. (Blue Gene/L )
22.8 TFLOPS peak processing speed.
Processor with a very high processing power.
8,096 CPUs at 700 MHz (downgraded to handle massive parallel processing).
256MB to 512MB memory per processor with a very large storing capacity..
Linux and C++ software.
100 kilowatts power con
A very wide network.
Very powerful Nanobots to act as the interface between the natural brain and the computer NATURAL BRAIN VS SIMULATED BRAIN EXAMPLE OF BLUE BRAIN A very good example of utilization of blue brain is the case "short term memory".
Another situation is that when a person gets older, then he starts forgetting or takes a bit more time to recognise to a person.
For the above reason we need a blue brain.It ia simple chip that can be installed into the human brain for which the short term memory and volatile memory at the old age can be avoided.
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