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Ntration, reduction & Isomerism

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Harvey Buckle

on 1 August 2017

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Transcript of Ntration, reduction & Isomerism

THL o know the two major forms of electrophilic substitution
HL To know TWO types of Isomerism
Synthetic route on board
Nitration made simple
Conc Nitric and Sulphuric
Warmed to 50 degrees
Nitryl Cation formed = electrophile
Nitric acid acts as BASE, less acidic
Nitration, reduction & Isomerism
1st August this year
LiAlH4/H+ in aprotic solvents e.g ether. Stronger
NaBH4/H+ in protic solvents e.g. water or ethanol

Pd or Sn/HCl also

Reduced to Phenylamine
Aldehydes to primary alcohols
Ketones to secondary alcohols

Cis/Trans Isomerism
No rotation
Subs on Same side = cis
Subs on different side = trans

Cyclic alkanes have cis/trans e.eg cyclobutane
Cahn/Ingold/Prelog rules.
Used when you have at least 3 different substituents

Higher masses on one side = Z(usammen)

Higher masses on two sides = E(ntagagen)
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