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Ntration, reduction & Isomerism

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by

Harvey Buckle

on 1 August 2017

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Transcript of Ntration, reduction & Isomerism

Aim
THL o know the two major forms of electrophilic substitution
HL To know TWO types of Isomerism
✳✱*
Starter
Synthetic route on board
Nitration made simple
Conc Nitric and Sulphuric
Warmed to 50 degrees
Nitryl Cation formed = electrophile
Nitric acid acts as BASE, less acidic
Mechanism
Nitration, reduction & Isomerism
1st August this year
Reduction
LiAlH4/H+ in aprotic solvents e.g ether. Stronger
NaBH4/H+ in protic solvents e.g. water or ethanol

Pd or Sn/HCl also

Nitrobenzene
Reduced to Phenylamine
mechanism
Changes
Aldehydes to primary alcohols
Ketones to secondary alcohols

Cis/Trans Isomerism
No rotation
Subs on Same side = cis
Subs on different side = trans

Cyclic alkanes have cis/trans e.eg cyclobutane
E/Z
Cahn/Ingold/Prelog rules.
Used when you have at least 3 different substituents

Higher masses on one side = Z(usammen)

And
Higher masses on two sides = E(ntagagen)
Full transcript