Transcript of Edwin Hubble
Amber Bader Edwin Hubble The Basics In the Beginning Hooker Telescope Depths of the Universe College Galaxies Expanding Definition of Hubble's Law Edwin Powell Hubble was born on November 20, 1889. He graduated from the University of Chicago and served in WWI before settling down to lead research in the field of astrophysics at Mount Wilson Observatory in California. Hubble married Grace Burke on February 26, l924 and had no children. Hubble's revolutionary work includes finding a constant relationship between galaxies' redshift and distance, which helped to eventually prove that the universe is expanding. Hubble was born in Marshfield, Missouri to his parent John and Virginia Lee Hubble. From a young age Hubble was facinated by science and began reading science-fiction novels. One of his favorite books was Jules Verne's 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea. When Hubble was 10, his parents moved he and his 7 siblings to Chicago,Illinois. There he finished his high school career. In 1914 Hubble returned to the University of Chicago and the Yerks Observatory to study astronomy. There he set out to finish his doctoral dissertation on a photographic investigation of faint nebulae. In the summer of 1917, he was recruited by California's Mount Wilson Observatory to help complete the construction of its Hooker telescope. But before he started his work, Hubble completed his doctorate in astronomy, enlisted in the U.S. Army and served a tour of duty in World War I. After high school, Hubble received a scholarship to attend the University of Chicago in 1906. After graduating in 1910, Hubble left Chicago and enrolled in Oxford University with a Rhodes Scholar where he studied law philosophy keeping with his father's wishes. He graduated from the school three years later, obtaining a bachelor's degree in jurisprudence. In 1919 Hubble finally came to the Mount Wilson Observatory in California. While working there, Hubble proved that there were other galaxies outside the Milky Way using the Hooker Telescope. By taking many photographs of Cepheid variables through 100 inch reflecting Hooker Telescope, Hubble proved that they were outside our galaxy, and determined that spiral nebulae are independent galaxies at great distances beyond the Milky Way, which had until then been believed to be the universe. In discovering other galaxies, Hubble created a classifying system, sorting them by content, distance, shape, and brightness. It was in doing this that Hubble noticed that redshifts in the emission of light from the galaxies, seeing that they were moving away from each other at a rate constant to the distance between them. It was in this observation that Hubble's Law was created in 1929. This discovery also was the basis of the Big Band Theory. Fun Fact: The scientist wins at sports! Not only was Hubble an outstanding student but he also excelled in sports. When in high school, Hubble broke the Illinois state high jump record. He continued to be athletic through his higher education by participating in basketball and boxing; proving one can be both intelligent and athletic. A law of cosmology stating that the rate at which astronomical objects in the universe move apart from each other is proportional to their distance from each other. Hubble's constant is estimated at approximately 71 kilometers per second per megaparsec. Fun Fact In 1917, Albert Einstein had already introduced his general theory of relativity, stating that space was curved by gravity, therefore that it must be able to expand or contract; but he found this assumption so outrageous, that he revised his theory, stating that the universe was static and immobile. When he learned of Hubble's discoveries, he is quoted that second guessing his original findings was the biggest blunder of his life, and he even visited Hubble to thank him in 1931. In 1942 Hubble left Mount Wilson determined help fight the Nazis in World War II. His first notion was to join the armed forces as he had done during the first World War, but he soon realized he could do more for his country by offering his services as a scientist. He served as chief of ballistics and director of the Supersonic Wind Tunnels Laboratory at the Army Proving Grounds in Maryland. In 1946, he was awarded the Medal of Merit, for exceptional conduct in providing outstanding services to citizens. Service to America Photo from Hubble Telescope Photo from Hubble Telescope Photo from Hubble Telescope Photo from Hubble Telescope Photo from Hubble Telescope Photo from Hubble Telescope Photo from Hubble Telescope Photo from Hubble Telescope Sources http://edwinhubble.com/Full transcript
coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu The University of Chicago 1909 intercollegiate championship basketball team. Hubble is on the left. WWI Involvement When the United States declared war on Germany, Hubble rushed through his dissertation, took his final oral exam, and reported to the army for duty three days later. He served in France and made the rank of major before the war ended. Fun Fact Though he was world traveled and famous, Hubble's Favorite hobby was simply fishing. After the war Hubble's last major achievement was involved in supporting the construction of the gigantic 200-inch telescope called Hale on Palomar Mountain south of Mount Wilson, which helped put him on the cover of Time magazine in 1948. Four times as powerful as the Hooker, the Hale would be the largest telescope on Earth for decades. In 1949, he was honored by being allowed the first use of the telescope. Cover of Time Hubble in the observer's cage located at the top of the tube of the 200-inch telescope on Palomar Mountain. On September 28, 1953 Hubble died of a cerebral thrombosis (blood clot in the brain). In that same year astronomy was formally declared a branch of physics. End of a great mind The greatest telescope known to science was named in honor of Edwin Hubble.The Hubble Space Telescope is a large telescope in space. It was launched by NASA on April 24, 1990 from space shuttle Discovery. The cost of launching was 1.5 billion dollars. Hubble is the length of a large school bus and weighs as much as two adult elephants. Hubble travels around Earth at about 5 miles per second completing an evolution about every 97minutes. Hubble has seen the birth and death of stars, seen galaxies that are billions of light years away, it has even seen comet pieces crash into the atmosphere above Jupiter. Hubble Telescope NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a spectacular new image of an iconic nebula to celebrate its 23 years of peering deep into the heavens. Awards Edwin Hubble was regarded as one the worlds greatest astronomers. Hubble was awarded the 1938 Catherine Wolfe Bruce gold medal, the 1939 Franklin Medal in Physics, the 1940 Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, A 1946 Medal of Merit, and in 1948 election as an Honorary Fellow of Queen's College at Oxford. Hubble's Constant Einstein looking into the eyepiece of the 100-inch Hooker telescope at Mt. Wilson Observatory, with Edwin Hubble and Walter Adams, January 1931.