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Weathering, Erosion & Deposition

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by

Tamara Rajecki

on 14 November 2016

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Transcript of Weathering, Erosion & Deposition

Weathering, Erosion & Deposition
Erosion
Take it away!
Forces of Erosion:
Wind
Water
Ice - glaciers
Grand Canyon was carved out over millions of years by the Colorado River.

Deposition
Pile it up!
Process in which sediment is placed in a new location.
Deposition is a
constructive
force of landforms.
DESTRUCTIVE FORCES - Destroy
Weathering
Break it apart!
Process by which natural forces break down rock.
Weathering is a destructive force of landforms.
Mechanical
Break down of rock, but keeps its same composition.
Chemical
Changes composition of exposed surfaces of rock
Mechanical
Ice Wedging - water gets in cracks, freezes, expands, forcing the rock to crack.

Exfoliation - layers of rock gradually break apart in sheets

Root Pry - the growth of tree roots cause rocks to break apart

Abrasion - water, wind, other rocks can create friction that breaks rocks apart
Process by which weathered particles are
moved
from one place to another.

Erosion is a
destructive
force of landforms.
Erosion by Gravity
Mass Wasting is the pulling down of large amounts of rock/soil/land/debris.
Landslides
Rock slides
Mudflows (Mudslides)
Slump
Creep

Drainage Basin - network of waterways that lead to the ocean.
Divide - ridge that separates basins.
Floodplains - Result of sediment being deposited on the river's edge after flooding has occurred.
Alluvial Fan - fan shaped deposit at the base of a mountain.
Delta - land that has formed from a build up of sediment at the base/mouth of a river. (Sandbar)
HYDROSPHERE
ANY BODY OF WATER ON EARTH
LITHOSPHERE
ANY BODY OF LAND ON EARTH
Weathering - Anything that breaks down &
Erosion - Carries sediment away.
Constructive Forces - Build
Deposition - Anything that creates a build up of sediment.
Volcanoes
Tornadoes
Hurricanes
Landslides
Sand Dunes
Sandbars
River/Flooding
Humans
(The shape of Earth's surface is a combined result of constructive and destructive processes.)
Chemical
Dissolving = Acid is created by CO2 (carbon dioxide) dissolving in water.
* Breaks down rock/soil faster than other types of weathering.
~Acid Rain = air pollution + rainwater
~Acidic Soil = some plants die from it; others love it.

Oxidation (Rusting) - rocks/minerals with iron in them, will rust when iron is exposed to oxygen from water or air.
(creates red rock)








Continental Glaciers - erode the ice and the sediment beneath it.

The result of a
glacier that moved over the
North Eastern U.S. is
the
Great Lakes
Volcanic Eruptions
Tsunamis
Rain/Hurricanes
Tornadoes
Landslides
Waves
Sand/Dust Storms

HUMANS - mining, farming,
building/construction






Load
= Amount of total sediment moved

Discharge
= Amount of water that moves in a given amount of time.
Ex: Niagara Falls = 84,760 ft3 per second
Groundwater
Acidic groundwater causes
erosion by dissolving rock.
Caves
Sinkholes
+
Erosion and Deposition of shorelines
depends on the hardness of the rock and the energy of the waves

Headlands - areas that stick out from the shore; waves hit and erode this land

Currents - carry eroded material

Beaches - area where eroded material is deposited.

Sandbars - is an exposed ridge of sand, gravel or shell material

Barrier Island - long, narrow island, made of sand; runs parallel to the shore
Gradient
Steep slope = faster erosion = moves larger sediment = straight line
Gentle/Flat slope = slower erosion = moves smaller sediment = curvy line
Sea Caves - waves cut large holes into fractured or weak rock along sea cliffs

Sea Arches - waves erode sea caves until a hole cuts through a headland.

Sea Stacks - tops of sea arches collapse and leave behind individual columns of rock


Erosion by Wind
Erosion by Glacier
Glacier is a large mass of moving ice.
Glacial Drift - sediment carried and deposited by a glacier.

Alpine Glacier is a glacier formed in the mountains.
Horn - sharp pyramid peaks
Arete's - jagged ridges between cirques
Cirques - bowl-shaped depressions
U-Shaped Valleys - glacier eroded river valley
(changes from a "V" to a "U"
Abraded Rock - grinding and wearing down of rock surfaces by other rock
Desert Deflation - wind removes the small sediment leaving heavy rock fragments behind.
Deposition by Wind
Dunes - mounds of sand deposited by wind
Loess - thick deposits of extremely fine material; can travel a long distance in the wind.
Weathering
Process by which natural forces
break down
rock.
It is a
destructive
force of landforms.
There are 2 types of weathering:
Mechanical

Chemical

Breaks down of rock, but keeps the
same composition.
Changes the composition
of exposed surfaces of the rock.
Full transcript