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Weathering, Erosion & Deposition
Transcript of Weathering, Erosion & Deposition
Take it away!
Forces of Erosion:
Ice - glaciers
Grand Canyon was carved out over millions of years by the Colorado River.
Pile it up!
Process in which sediment is placed in a new location.
Deposition is a
force of landforms.
DESTRUCTIVE FORCES - Destroy
Break it apart!
Process by which natural forces break down rock.
Weathering is a destructive force of landforms.
Break down of rock, but keeps its same composition.
Changes composition of exposed surfaces of rock
Ice Wedging - water gets in cracks, freezes, expands, forcing the rock to crack.
Exfoliation - layers of rock gradually break apart in sheets
Root Pry - the growth of tree roots cause rocks to break apart
Abrasion - water, wind, other rocks can create friction that breaks rocks apart
Process by which weathered particles are
from one place to another.
Erosion is a
force of landforms.
Erosion by Gravity
Mass Wasting is the pulling down of large amounts of rock/soil/land/debris.
Drainage Basin - network of waterways that lead to the ocean.
Divide - ridge that separates basins.
Floodplains - Result of sediment being deposited on the river's edge after flooding has occurred.
Alluvial Fan - fan shaped deposit at the base of a mountain.
Delta - land that has formed from a build up of sediment at the base/mouth of a river. (Sandbar)
ANY BODY OF WATER ON EARTH
ANY BODY OF LAND ON EARTH
Weathering - Anything that breaks down &
Erosion - Carries sediment away.
Constructive Forces - Build
Deposition - Anything that creates a build up of sediment.
(The shape of Earth's surface is a combined result of constructive and destructive processes.)
Dissolving = Acid is created by CO2 (carbon dioxide) dissolving in water.
* Breaks down rock/soil faster than other types of weathering.
~Acid Rain = air pollution + rainwater
~Acidic Soil = some plants die from it; others love it.
Oxidation (Rusting) - rocks/minerals with iron in them, will rust when iron is exposed to oxygen from water or air.
(creates red rock)
Continental Glaciers - erode the ice and the sediment beneath it.
The result of a
glacier that moved over the
North Eastern U.S. is
HUMANS - mining, farming,
= Amount of total sediment moved
= Amount of water that moves in a given amount of time.
Ex: Niagara Falls = 84,760 ft3 per second
Acidic groundwater causes
erosion by dissolving rock.
Erosion and Deposition of shorelines
depends on the hardness of the rock and the energy of the waves
Headlands - areas that stick out from the shore; waves hit and erode this land
Currents - carry eroded material
Beaches - area where eroded material is deposited.
Sandbars - is an exposed ridge of sand, gravel or shell material
Barrier Island - long, narrow island, made of sand; runs parallel to the shore
Steep slope = faster erosion = moves larger sediment = straight line
Gentle/Flat slope = slower erosion = moves smaller sediment = curvy line
Sea Caves - waves cut large holes into fractured or weak rock along sea cliffs
Sea Arches - waves erode sea caves until a hole cuts through a headland.
Sea Stacks - tops of sea arches collapse and leave behind individual columns of rock
Erosion by Wind
Erosion by Glacier
Glacier is a large mass of moving ice.
Glacial Drift - sediment carried and deposited by a glacier.
Alpine Glacier is a glacier formed in the mountains.
Horn - sharp pyramid peaks
Arete's - jagged ridges between cirques
Cirques - bowl-shaped depressions
U-Shaped Valleys - glacier eroded river valley
(changes from a "V" to a "U"
Abraded Rock - grinding and wearing down of rock surfaces by other rock
Desert Deflation - wind removes the small sediment leaving heavy rock fragments behind.
Deposition by Wind
Dunes - mounds of sand deposited by wind
Loess - thick deposits of extremely fine material; can travel a long distance in the wind.
Process by which natural forces
It is a
force of landforms.
There are 2 types of weathering:
Breaks down of rock, but keeps the
Changes the composition
of exposed surfaces of the rock.