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Unit 17 Assignment 3- Group dynamics in sport
Transcript of Unit 17 Assignment 3- Group dynamics in sport
By Dan Maasik
Stages of group development
Forming: The forming stage is when members of the group get to know each other and assess the strengths and weaknesses of one another. The members of the group decide if they belong in that group, whilst the leaders are directive in this phase.
Storming: The storming stage is when conflicts begin to occur and members of the group challenge the position of the leader. The conflict can occur due to pressure being put upon the group
Norming: The norming stage is when the conflicts from the storming stage are resolved. This results in increased levels of co-operation and cohesion, which then leads to more respect and satisfaction amongst the group. The leader expects members of the group to become more involved in decision making, whilst also taking more responsibility for their own behaviour.
Performing: This stage is when the group is able to work effectively towards meeting a goal without there being any internal conflict. At this point the group will be able to make decisions as a whole and will all take responsibility for them.
Steiner's model of group effectiveness
Actual productivity = potential productivity
-losses due to faulty group process
is the results that the group gets and the level of performance that the group puts in.
is the highest level that the group could possibly perform at based on their individual skill, the resources available and the ability of each athlete in the group. Loses due to faulty group processes are issues that can get in the way of the perfect team performance. This can be split into
. Motivational faults are when a member of the team doesn't try their hardest, and coordination faults are when members of the team interact poorly with one another.
The Ringelmann effect
The Ringelmann effect is when the size of the group or team gets larger, thereby resulting in a drop in level of performance (up to as high as 50%) as members of the group feel they can "hide" and not perform to their highest level.
An example of this would be a member of a cycling team reducing their level of performance as their are more riders in their team than before, putting less pressure on them to perform well as there is a higher possibility that one of the other riders will finish in a high position.
Social loafing is when a member of a group reduces the level of effort that they put into a task because they know other members of their group will put in high levels of effort; therefore making up for their lack of effort.
For example a football player may not try as hard as they know that another player on their team will make up for their lack of effort by putting in a good performance.
Interactive and co-active groups
How to create an effective team environment
Factors that affect cohesion
Cohesion and performance
Qualities and behaviors of a good leader
Prescribed and emergent leader
Theories of leadership
Different types of leader
-Leaders need be to able to give athletes time to develop. For example a captain of a football team will need to have patience with young players whilst their skills develop.
-The leader needs to set an example of the professional standards for the rest of his team to meet. Example of this would include how they conduct themselves in the media and the public eye.
-A leader should be able to formulate effective tactics and ideas for the rest of the team to follow. An example of this would be a football captain changing tactics and giving advice to their team mates to help improve their performance in the match.
-The leader needs to motivate the team and be a person their team mates can look up to, therefore they need to emit positivity to the rest of their team despite the situation. For example a captain of a team that loses many matches needs to raise the morale of their players and motivate them to perform despite the fact they often lose.
-The leader needs to confidence in themselves, and the rest of their team by giving them responsibilities such as decision making which they must then support (showing confidence and trust). An example of a leader who shows confidence would be Ray Lewis as he gives team talks that motivate his team to perform.
-Interactive groups are those that rely on the co-operation and team work of the entire group to achieve success, rather than individual performances to gain success. An example of this would be a bobsleigh team who all need to work together on the launch to give them the best possible start.
-Co-active groups are those which rely on individuals being successful on their own, therefore making teamwork and co-operation less important. An example of this would be a team like Real Madrid which is full of top quality players, as their individual performances are enough to win a game, put less emphasis on teamwork.
Prescribed- Prescribed leaders are those who become a leader via appointment. An example of this would be a football captain who was made captain by the manager despite them not having previously been a leader or not particularly being a good leader.
Emergent-An emergent leader is someone who becomes leader due to them being respected and supported by the group. This respect and support comes due to them showing leadership or being skillful at their sport. An example would be Martin Johnson who became captain of the England rugby team due to his good performances and great leadership skills. This is seen in how he was able to lead England to winning the Rugby World Cup in 2003.
"The action or fact of forming a united whole"
The building of an effective team environment or climate is the responsibility of both the coach and the players in the team.
A coach can build an effective team climate by: communicating effectively, ensuring everyone knows their roles, keep changes to a minimum, encouraging a group identity, getting to know their athletes and setting group and individual goals.
The athletes can build an effective team environment by: being responsible for themselves, trying as hard as possible, resolving conflict, getting to know and helping each other. Self responsibility is important because it means that members of the group aren't suffering from the actions of others in the group. Trying hard and putting in effort is important because members of the team who don't engage themselves will hold back the rest of the team as they aren't trying. Resolving conflict is possible because it allows the level of teamwork to increase which is important as without it the team cannot function and therefore cannot perform to a high level. Getting to know and helping other members of the team is important because it builds trust and leads to players wanting to work for each other.
There are 4 main factors that affect cohesion according to Carron's conceptual model of cohesion (1982). These are: environmental, personal, leadership and team.
Environmental-groups that are close together and smaller tend to bond better as they have more opportunities to interact and form relationships with one another. For example a team of 3 athletes will bond better with one another than a team of 30 athletes as they spend more time with one another and therefore form a stronger friendship.
Personal-the characteristics of the different members of the group is important. If the group shares the same opinions, background, goals and levels of commitment then there will be a large level of cohesion amongst the group. For example teams with players of similar personalities will be more cohesive than those with contrasting personalities.
Leadership-The relationship and compatibility between the leaders (coach) and the athletes will determine cohesion. For example if the players reject and are despondent towards a coaches ideas then there will be less cohesion between the two, such as David Moyes at Manchester United.
Team-If the group is able to remain together through defeats, victories, internal problems and everyone is involved in decision making then the group will become bonded to each other due to their shared experiences, therefore increasing cohesion.
The greater the levels of cohesion then generally the greater level of performance will also be. This is true for interactive sports as teams with a good level of cohesion are able to work better and therefore their level of performance as a team is also likely to be high. Cohesion is important because it means there is little or no conflict between members of the group, this helps towards a high level of performance as it limits distractions and means there is better co-operation amongst the group allowing them to work together better. An example of team with good cohesion was Germany at the 2014 World Cup as they showed good teamwork throughout the entire tournament and eventually won.
-the trait theory suggests that a leader is born with characteristics which makes them a good leader. The theory also suggests that the leader will be good in any situation and not just in their own domain, for example a leader can lead a group of people in their own preferred sport, but then also in a sport in which they have less experience playing as they have the qualities to take control of a group of people.
-the behavioural theory however suggests that a leader inherits the leadership characteristics by observing and learning from other leaders, and then reproducing those characteristics themselves. If the qualities that the person attempts to recreate are successful then they will continue to use them; making them a leader.
-the interactional theory suggests that leaders are split by their interaction with their group and their interaction with the task. This means that there are 2 types of leader, the relationship-orientated leaders and task-orientated leaders. Relationship orientated leaders are those which focus on developing relationships with members of their group, therefore maintaining a high level of social interaction and communication. These leaders tend to work best with experienced and highly skilled athletes. Task orientated leaders however focus on the task and therefore have plans, assigning tasks to members and group productivity prioritised over relationships with members of the group. These leaders are better with less experiences athletes who need guidance.
-the multidimensional model suggests that there are 3 factors of the leaders behaviour which will determine whether their group/team responds well to them as a leader. The factors are required, preferred and actual behaviour. This means that the group will want the leader to behave in the required manner, behave and act in their preferred manner, and then actual behaviour is whether they meet these which will determine if the group is satisfied with them as a leader.
-An autocratic leader is a leader which is very dominant over the group of people that they lead and is the highest authority amongst that group. They will be inflexible with the ways that they want things to be done and will dictate who does the tasks and when the tasks are done. These leaders do often not get involved with the group on a personal level and therefore do not care for feed back from the group. These leaders can lead to aggression amongst the group as they can create a bitter atmosphere with their lack of relationship and strict authority.
-democratic leaders tend to make decisions based on the opinions of the entire group. These leaders encourage group involvement and are relaxed in their approach to leadership due to the high group involvement they promote. These leaders maintain their leadership role by being the person to finalise group decisions and channel the voice of the group. These leaders tend to make agreements on goals amongst the group which means when they aren't present the group can continue to function, aiming towards the agreed goal.
The factors which influence group dynamics and performance
Leadership is important in the dynamics of a group as it is what controls the group. A leader ensures that the group stays on task and is the one who designates roles to individual members of the group. A good leader which enables the group to work effectively will get a high level of performance from their group as they will all be highly motivated to perform and will therefore work hard towards the goals set for them; resulting in goals being met and a therefore a high level of performance from the group. Leadership is the most important because the leader is responsible for all that the team does, and ultimately the team is a reflection of the leader. Therefore it's important for the team to have a good leader because the members of the team will copy the leader, so a good leader with high standards will mean the team will have to meet those high standards; resulting in a increased level of performance.
Cohesion is the second most important factor in influencing group dynamics and the level of performance. This is because teamwork is very important in a team gaining success and performing to a high level. Teamwork affects level of performance because a team that works well together will have a better understanding of one another and will . Teamwork is based on cohesion so it is therefore that the members of the team have good relationships with one another so that there is cohesion and then teamwork is able to take place. Cohesion is also important because teams spend a significant amount of time with one another and therefore need to have a good relationship in order to deal with the positives and negatives that they will go through as a group.
Social Loafing is an important factor in the dynamics and performance of a team as it can result in internal conflicts in a team and limit the level of performance of the group. Social loafing is important as it can affect the dynamics and performance because members of the group not trying will be identified by other members of the team, which will lead to anger amongst the team towards that player. This will then distract the team from their sport and will therefore cause a reduction in the level of performance of the team. Social loafing can be the main cause of a teams poor level of performance, therefore proving its importance in regards to how it can influence a team.
The Ringlemann effect is important in the dynamics and performance of a team because it limits the performance of the team. The Ringlemann effect is when the group grows in size and the level of performance decreases as members of the group believe that they don't need to try as hard because the group is larger and the new members of the group will make up for their lack of effort. This is important in regards to the performance of a team if it is present as it will reduce the level of performance due to members of the group not putting in the required effort. The fact that members of the group decrease their level of effort can offset the addition of the new members as they are making up for the reduction of effort rather than adding to the overall level of effort.