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AP Bio- Physiology 1: Basic Principles of Form and Function
Transcript of AP Bio- Physiology 1: Basic Principles of Form and Function
Because of this, animals demonstrate the greatest diversity of tissue-level, organ-level, and systems-level organization. Cells & Tissues Form and function Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Tissue that lines the body.
Can have a wide variety of structures and functions (absorption, protection, sensation, cleaning, secretion, excretion, etc).
Separated from other tissues by a "basement membrane" Fibrous tissue that provides structure and support.
Includes bone, cartillage, blood, adipose ("fat") tissue, ligaments and tendons Muscular Tissue Responsible for locomotion both internally and externally.
Three major types:
Skeletal ("striated")- includes all voluntary movment.
cardiac- special muscle that comprises the heart.
smooth- lines organs and the gastrointestinal tract, responsible for peristalsis. Nervous Tissue Responsible for coordination and control of the body.
Comprised of neurons and glial cells. Organs & Systems Animal tissues are arranged into organs.
These organs comprise organ-systems that allow for the animal to accomplish life functions. Homeostasis: The internal, "steady-state" condition needed to remain alive.
The nervous system monitors conditions and effects responses that maintain homeostasis through the functions of organ systems. The physiological processes at work in any organism are constrained by the environment and adapted by evolution. Example 1:
Materials Exchange Unicellular and microscopic organisms are able to exchange materials directly with their environment
Plants and animals have evolved adaptations to accomplish these exchanges internally (usually through maximizing surface area) Example 2:
Energy Considerations The energetic considerations of an organism's enviornment have consequences for physiology and behavior. Example 3:
Convergence Similar environmental constraints often result in similar adaptive solutions. Make sure you can: Big Questions: How are the structures of an organism related to their functions?
How is physiology accomplished accross multiple levels of organization in an organism?
How does the environment constrain an organism's physiology?
Why do organisms need to regulate their internal
How is regulation accomplished? The animation is a bit cheesy, but still... click here! Thermoregulation Animals Only Animals are really the only organisms who are able to regulate their temperature.
Even among animals, there is a wide diversity of abilities to regulate temperature.
Many animals are ecotothermic, which essentially makes them thermoconformers (though even ectotherms can affect their termperature by changing their environment. Endotherms & Ectotherms Endotherms:
Able to maintain internal temperature at a different level than ambient temperature
Birds and mammals
Internal temperature conforms to ambient temperature
All other animals. Metabolic activity is the major source of heat production in organisms.
Endothermic organisms have a higher metabolic rate than ectothermic organisms. Heat is exchanged between an organism and the environment in 4 major ways. Controlling Heat Exchange Measuring Metabolism The skin is the major mechanism of heat exchange between animals and the environment Organisms that live in pronounced heat sink environments (like the ocean) utilize countercurrent exchange to decrease heat loss in extremities. Mammals utilize circulatory, integumentary (skin), and muscular processes to maintain temperature within a homeostatic range.
Too Cold: Shivering & constriction of skin capillaries.
Too Hot: Sweating & dilation of skin blood vessels. Some examples of heat exchange strategies: Metabolsim can be measured in organisms by measuring heat exchange and metabolic indicators (respiratory rate, heart rate, etc.) Basal Metabolic Rate: the minimum metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest (not correlated to temperature).
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is a function of body size, with larger organisms consuming more oxygen per hour than smaller organisms (note the logarithmic scales).... However, when adjusted for metabolism as a function of mass, it becomes apparent that smaller animals consume exponentially more oxygen per unit of mass than larger animals... In Endotherms: Why? Why? In Ectotherms: Metabolic rate is a function of temperature. The higher the ambient temperature, the greater an animal's metabolic rate.
Standard metabolic rate: The metabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest at a particular temperature. Hippopotamus- Endothermic Dragonfly-
Ectothermic Energy Budgets Comparrison of energy requirements for three different endotherms and an ectotherm.
Notice that the ectotherm (snake) has to spend no energy on thermoregulation. Also notice that compared to the comparatively sized endotherm (penguin), the ectotherm has a greatly reduced energy requirement. Torpor Refers to a state of decreased activity and metabolism, which enables organisms to expend less energy during times when food acquisition is unfavorable or dangerous.
Common in small endotherms (usually during the night)
Hibernation: Long-term winter torpor.
Estivation: Long-term summer torpor. Data from an experiment monitoring RNA levels of two "clock genes" (Per2 & Bmal1) involved in regulating daily activity ("circadian rhytms") in active (euthermic- "producing warmthng") and hibernating European hamsters. Hibernating Doormice Harbor Seal- Endothermic Lizard- Ectothermic What's the Strategy? Click
Here Explain how multicellularity allows for increased levels of organization in an organism.Provide examples of how an organism's environment places constraints on its physiology.Explain why organisms need to regulate their temperature.Compare the thermoregulatory strategies of ectotherms and endotherms. Explain the advantages of ectothermy and endothermy.Explain how metabolism is measured in ectotherms and endotherms.