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Psychology Chapter 1
Transcript of Psychology Chapter 1
First individual to study psychology scientifically
Established first psychology lab in 1879 Sadly (or maybe happily for those of you with bumps!), modern science has revealed phrenology to be nothing but pseudoscience. Or...What's this class about anyway? Sigmund Freud One of the most well-known names in psychology
Created psychoanalysis and the psychodynamic branch of psychology
But...his theories cannot be proven scientifically. And that's what separates the old days from today:
Modern psychology is a science based on empirical evidence. derived by controlled experiments, careful observation, and unbiased measurement Essential Questions Today Who are we? Are we something more than our genes and brain chemistry? How can our advances in science aid us in understanding ourselves? Can people change? How best do people learn? Why do people develop mental illnesses? How are we affected by our culture and environment? Can we prevent crime? What treatments work best for disorders? How can we improve our relationships? How can we improve global understanding? Today, psychology is the second most popular major in college. What do people with a psychology degree do?
(page 2) Correlation Random Assignment Representative Sample Advantages and Disadvantages of Experiments Cross-Sectional Studies Longitudinal Studies study subjects of different ages at the same time
shows how age affects the variable being studied study subjects over a longer period of time (checking back with them periodically over months or years)
shows how changes occur over time allows us to determine cause and effect! can be replicated by others participants do not always represent the larger population research conducted on college campuses (the card demo) A researcher must assign participants to control and experimental groups at random.
If this is done, all variation in participants can be assumed to be balanced between both groups. A researcher must choose participants who look like (represent) the larger population. a measure of how strongly two variables are related to each other
(variables: characteristics of behavior or experience that can be
measured or described by a numeric scale) Positive correlation: Increases in one variable are associated with increases in the other; decreases are likewise associated Negative correlation: Increases in one variable are associated with decreases in the other Correlations show a relationship but never show cause and effect.
Only an experiment can do that.