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megan stanton

on 24 January 2014

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Transcript of Somalia

Role of the United Nations
The UN`s involvement with Somalia is really complicated. It has left a lot of mistrust between the Somali people and international partners, they have a bit of a negative effect on Somalia. When the UN sent two peacekeeping forces and after eighteen US marines were killed the UN peacekeepers left without restoring any peace. That failure had a big impact on the role of the UN in Somalia. The UN also tried to sponsor a peace conference which also failed leaving problems. After this the UN remained less passive in Somalia affairs.
The UN has tried many thing but most end in failure. Other than the UN's efforts, all over Somalia the ceasefire was ignored, fighting continued and continued to increase, putting the relief operations at great risk. The UN withdrew from Somalia since its failed military intervention, but showed some renewed interest by sponsoring the Djibouti peace process and granted limited assistance to TFG 11 to ensure that it remains in power.
On 23 January 1992 the UNs Security Council (UNSC) adopted a resolution imposing sanctions in relation to Somalia in response to the worsening of the conflict in Somalia, the heavy loss of life and the widespread material damage resulting from the conflict. With diplomacy`s the American government never formally severed diplomatic ties with Somalia.
Since the UN withdrew in 1995, the US has secretly carried out operations there, claiming that the country is a site of terrorist activity. In December 2006 the Transitional Federal Government launched a counter-offensive with the support of Ethiopian troops, that pushed the Union of Islamic Courts to collapse. To maintain an arm embargo on Somalia, the UN Security Council authorized the African Union to establish a peacekeeping mission (AMISOM) to support dialogue and reconciliation in Somalia. The AU is trying to organize the deployment of such force, but troop contributors have not been forthcoming.
International Organizations

All of the international organizations have in some way or another made a difference in Somalia. Somalia's ongoing conflict has been a source of concern for many regional states and in international organizations. There has been particular organizations that have made significant contributions in trying to resolve Somali conflict. Some currently and recently completed programs in Somalia are the Emergency relief, Orphan support, Ramadan food distribution, and Udhiyah/Qurbani meat distribution.
Some organizations that have participated in helping Somalia are UNDP, UNECA, ACP, AFESD, AMF, AU, FAO, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITSO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, and WMO.
Aid groups that are working in Somalia from the Huffington Post are Children's Rights, Poverty and Human Rights, Prisoners and People at Risk and tagged communities at risk, Demand Dignity, economic social and cultural rights, and Fight poverty with human rights.
Non government organizations have played an important role with Somalia especially in the past. It has helped Somalia with things such as taking responsibility of governance and security and community and national level.At the same time though they really struggled with getting donation funds. At first NGO's felt to organize and address the problems facing them, their efforts of organizing crumbled at their feet when confronted with the reality of the country.

Recent Events in Somalia
Over the past two decades the nature of the Somali crisis has been constantly changing. It has mutated from a civil war in the past (1980) through state collapse, clan factionalism and warlordism, to a globalized ideological conflict, and so much more, getting worse every day. Too many civilians in Somalia are dying everyday by the minute. The decades of fighting between rival warlords meant that the country couldnt deal with natural disasters such as drought so around half a million people died in the Somali famines in 1992 and 2010 to 2012.

May 7th 2013 The UK Prime Minister David Cameron is going to host an international conference in London to help Somalia end more than two decades of conflict. The conference will focus on rebuilding its security forces and tackling rape which is a largely taboo subject in Somalia. Mary Harper from BBC spoke to Somalia's President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, he said that he expects the world to view Somalia through "different lenses" now, even though two days before the comference there was two massive bomb attacks. Most attacks now are from Al-Shabab, which is a Somali Islamist militant group. This groups motives on the part of foreign organizations, group members have also reportedly intimidated, kidnapped and killed aid workers, leading to a suspension of humanitarian operations and an exodus of relief agents.Al-Shabaab has been stated as a terrorist organization.

Mogadishu residents can now enjoy the beach again in 2012 because of the withdrawal when extremists banned social gatherings of men and women.
The long-standing absence of authority in the country led to Somali pirates becoming a major threat to international shipping in the area and that prompted NATO to take the lead in an anti-piracy operation. International efforts were seen to thrive in 2012 when pirate attacks began to drop sharply.
In 2011 the situation of the Somali people became worse when the worst drought hit in six decades, this left millions of people on the verge of starvation and caused tens of thousands to flee to Kenya and Ethiopia in search of food.

Motives of Internationalism
History of Somalia
The nation of Somalia has existed for more than 2,000 years. Until the late 1880's, foreigners came wanting to colonize the country. Britain, Italy,and France each then claimed their own part of Somalia and from then on the next fifty years were filled with fighting over who got a bigger piece. In 1960, Somalia gained its independence but was still a very unstable place. That only ended the colonial divide.

In 1969, a coup d'etat took place, which means a group of people overthrew the government. The one who led the coup, Mohamed Siad Barre then became president of Somalia until 1991. Until 1991, peace remained un-restored with persisting clan-wars, dictatorship and civil war. After the end of the civil war, the 'Republic of Somaliland withdrew from the main country. Somalia has been torn through conflict for most of its 48 years of independence. The implosion of the state itself came when the president was overthrown.

Throughout his time as president, Mohamed Siad Barre attempted to reclaim Somalia's territory from neighboring Ethiopia. Somalia's pleas for help from other countries were ignored and they eventually lost their fight. And when the president was overthrown, the only difference was that the fighting continued without anyone stepping up to lead the country. Since the end of the civil war Somalia has failed to reinstate a proper national government and remains without one. Between Jan, 1991 and Aug, 2000 Somalia had no working government. A fragile parliamentary government was formed in 2000, but it expired in 2003 without establishing control of the country. In 2004, a new transitional parliament was instituted and elected a president. Fighting has continued in Somalia for more than a decade now, between various warlord-led groups, against Ethiopia, and most recently against the United States. Since civil war broke out, approximately 500,000 people have died in Somalia. Somalia is a failed state.

In Somalia the years of civil unrest has created crucial living conditions
Somalis have been internally disturbed over the years because of violence and according to the Central Intelligence Agency the people dont have shelter, food or access to clean water. Violence kept the relief organizations from getting in the country to help, all the uprisings have caused extreme poverty and malnutrition rampant in the region.

Somalia is exposed to extreme weather conditions and natural disasters, such as floods and drought. This prevents the peoples ability to harvest land for food and to build a strong agricultural industry for income. The poorer Somali area also suffers from high rates of infant mortality and illiteracy. Other than Somalia having amoung the highest rates of maternal and infant mortality in the world, violations to human rights, piracy, high risk of communicable disease including diarrheal disease, malaria, dengue fever, typhoid, and severe malnutrition Somalia's overall prevalence of HIV/AIDS is estimated around 0.9%. This is considered to be low amount compared to other surrounding countries. But many factors can aggravate it. The current drought situation and war and armed conflict, resulted in forced displacement, collapse of social structures and breakdown of rule of law put people at much greater risk of HIV infection. The existence of this problem is still denied because HIV is associated with promiscuity and the Somali society is afraid to address issues of sexuality. Families abandon their relatives once they know they are affected with HIV.

These issues are international with nature with how nature can openly and unexpectedly effect a nation or worldwide. Nature effects things in both negatively and positivity but mostly in a negative way. It affects a countries human population, crop production, health, livestock, trade, and government. Internationalism can help resolve these issues by working together. Somalia is a failed state, the failure is not just a Somali failure. It was a failure of global governance. So we should help fix and put back together the country that is getting worse. There are aid groups but to help them with supplies would do a difference or just by all of us coming together to resolve the issue so it wont prolong.
Social Structure

Somalia consists of a population of 9,925,640. The capital city of Smalia is Mogadishu that consists of 1.353 million.
Somalia is a small country located on the Horn of Africa.
Somalia occupies the tip of a region that, due to its resemblance on the map to a rhinoceros' horn, it is commonly referred to as being located at the Horn of Africa. This is a region of Africa that is comprised of Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia. Somalia lies along the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean. Somalia has a land area of 637,540 square kilometers and mountains in the north that reach more than 2,000 meters high.

Somalia has the longest coastline on the mainland, and a seaboard that stretches 3,025 km. The country is basically made up of flat lands and if there is at all an increase in altitude, it rises to form a table land or what you would call plateau. Somalia has only two permanent rivers, the Jubba and the Shabele and they both begin in the Ethiopian Highlands.
In Somalia, the weather is hot throughout the year, except at the higher elevations in the north consisting with periodic monsoon winds and sparse irregular rainfall.
In Somalia, in the beginning of 1991 and near the end of 2000, there was no working government until 2004. A frail parliamentary government was formed in 2000, but it expired in 2003, establishing no control of the country. In 2004 a transitional government was formed.The transitional federal assembly has 275-seats that has members chosen from various clans. The transitional government was the internationally recognised government of Somalia until 20 August 2012. Somalia is full of different political parties but due to the transitional government the political parties make no affect on it.

The Transitional Federal Government was made up of the executive branch of government, with the TFP serving as the legislative branch. The government was lead by the President of Somalia, to whom the cabinet reported through the Prime Minister. It was also used as a general term to refer to all three branches collectively. in October 14, 2010 the president appointed of Somalia is Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, the prime minister of Somalia is Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed. Soon after, the Prime Minister named a new Cabinet on November 12, 2010 which was then praised by the international community.

The Transitional Federal Government was made up of the executive branch of government, with the TFP serving as the legislative branch. The national constitution lays out the basic way how the government operates. It was passed on June 23, 2012, and to come into effect, the constitution must be ratified by the new parliament.
The president is elected by the parliament and he or she serves as the head of state and chooses the Prime Minister who serves as the head of the government and leads the council of ministers.
The Cabinet is formally known as the Council of Ministers. It is then appointed by the Prime Minister.The Federal Parliament of Somalia elects the President and Prime Minister and has the authority to pass and veto laws. It consists of a 275 seat lower house and an upper house capped at 54 representatives. By law at least 30% of all MPs must be women.

Other than the fact that Somalia has a non effective national government, Somalia surprisingly has a pretty healthy strong economy. Somalia is still quite poor but for how their government is, their economy is doing well. The industries that are run there help a lot with their economy. Agriculture is their most important economic sector. Its mainly farming but livestock is one of the few exports from Somalia. Most of the livestock that they export goes to countries in the Middle East. With livestock normally accounting for about 40% of GDP and more than 50% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-pastoralists who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large amount of the population. Livestock, hides, fish, charcoal, and bananas are Somalia's principal exports, while sugar, sorghum, corn, qat, and machined goods are the principal imports.

For Somalia's economy to grow is very limited, especially because of the horrible fighting and the total lack of a government. At some point they are going to have to move beyond the economy they already have. This is going to require them to become involved in international trade but that probably won’t happen unless they have a stable government. Since that wont happen anytime soon Somalia is probably going to keep struggling for many years to come. They have been doing pretty well but things do need to change. Other countries that are in the same kind of economic problems would be getting large amounts of foreign aid but Somalia hasn’t been lucky with that. But because of the total lack of a government and the fact that foreign aid workers can’t safely enter the country anyway has made this impossible. This is another thing that is going to have to change if the country is going to ever get back to having a strong economy.
Somalis people are the largest ethnic group in Somalia, at about 85% of the people of Somalia.They are organized into clans and sub-clan groupings which are important social units, this clan membership plays an important part in Somali culture. Each clan is responsible for its members and the individual action of members will have an impact on the entire clan. The clans function as a support system for members, so during a drought members would rely on the clan for food security. Clans combine forces for protection, access to water and good land, and political power.
The Somali clan organization is an unstable system, it is identified by changing alliances and temporary coalitions. Because Somalia's society is clan-based that is one of the reasons why its rampant violent. Traditionally, decisions are made by councils of men. Most of the population is Somalis and Bantus. The six main Somali clans are the Darod, the Isaq, the Hawiye, the Dir, the Digil, and the Rahanweyn.
In Somalia it is not unusual at all for a poor and uneducated nomad to approach a high government official as an equal and engage him in a discussion about the affairs of state. A fundamental aspect of traditional Somalia political organization is the diya-paying group. Diya-paying group is like a repayment paid by a person who has injured or killed another person. Somalia's culture is said to be about its art, history, music, religion, and traditions. The two things that Somalia bases its culture from are its tendancy towards poetry and their religious identity.
Somali and Arabic are the official languages of Somalia. It is the mother tongue of the Somali people. According to the 2010 revision of the UN's World Population Prospects the total population in Somalia was 9,331,000 in 2010 but in 2012 it was 10,085,638. The life expectancy at birth- total population:50.8 years, male:48.86 years, female:52.8 years. The Somali religion is Islam (Sunni), other than a few of the populatiom, all Somalians are Sunni muslims.

Current Situation
Somalia is one of the most dangerous places in the world for humanitarian workers and in this environment the (WTF)World Food Program has to constantly adjust and revise its operations....constantly. In 2010, they were forced to suspend their deliverys of food because of the growing insecurity and threats and unacceptable demands from armed groups there. The WTF hope it will be a quick suspension but it requires a change in position from the senior leadership of Al Shabab, who control most of southern Somalia before the WTF can return to work. The WTF are extremly concerned for the welfare of the people in Somalia because of the number of people.
Ongoing drought and civil unrest in Somalia has 70 percent of its population in need of humanitarian assistance. Because of the six seasons of ongoing below average rainfall decreased livestock population and forced farmers to gather in towns to search for assistance. Because of this there is nearly 300,000 people in northern Somalia in need of assistance. One in six million children are severely malnourished, a total of 240,000, its the highest malnutrition rate in the world and in central Somalia they are even higher.

In Somalia there are great mining possibility's, and under more stable conditions it could participate in international trade. That would give business to both foreign nations, this would better the economy of Somalia.
Peace and Security-
Piracy in Somalia has become a big concern in international waters ever since the second part of Somalia's civil war. The toxic wast being left in the waters from foreign ships severely harmed the livelihoods of the local fisherman. The fisherman then started to form armed crews to stop the unwelcome ships. Eventually they turned to piracy, hijacking foreign ships for ransom as a source for income.
Over the past two decades Somalia has become one of the worlds worst and most enduring humanitarian crises. Millions in need of food and shelter, it is also one of the worlds most restrictive and insecure environments for humanitarian actors. The quality life for the people in Somalia is dreadful.
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