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seblewengel talle

on 12 February 2013

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Communities and ecosystems Ecology
and Evolution Key Terms Species: a group of organisms with the same gene pool

Habitat: the environment in which species live

Population: same species living in the same area at the same time

Community: a group of population interacting in an area

Ecosystem: a community and its abiotic environment

Ecology: the study of the relation between organisms and their environment Sequence that shows the
feeding relationship and
energy flow between species. Food Chain Organisms Autotrophs: organisms that produce their
own food through photosynthesis.

Heterotrophs: organisms that get their
chemical energy from autrophs.

Detritivores: organisms that eat non living organic matter

Saprotrophs: secrete digestive enzymes and absorb the products of digestion.

Producers: carry out photoshyntheis and
produce their own food.

Consumers: organism that consume other
organisms food Trophic levels: organism
position in a food chain

T1: producer
T2: primary consumer
T3: secondary
T4: tertiary consumer
T5: quaternary consumer Food webs Are interconnecting series of
food chains that illustrate the
complex interaction of organisms
in an ecosystem sunlight: initial energy

Energy flow: energy is
transferred from one organism
to the next when carbohydrates, lipids or proteins are digested

Energy loss: No organism can
use the 100% of energy present
in the organic molecules of
the food it eats Energy: the importance of light Energy pyramid: The flow of energy from the producer through the various consumers.

Examines how energy is distributed within a food chain.

Is set up by approximating the amount of energy absorbed at each level

The amount of energy that is consumed by the higher trophic level and the amount of energy lost to heat and death. Carbon cycle: Greenhouse Effect
Life on earth is referred to as a carbon-based life

Carbon is constantly recycled in the environment

Carbon in the form of atmospheric carbon dioxide is absorbed by photosynthetic organisms Carbon cycle
on Earth 1.Sunligth enters Earth atmosphere

2.Sunlight reflects off the surface and travel back out of the atmosphere

3.Light energy is transformed into heat energy

4.Greenhouse gases retain some heat and trap it in the atmosphere

5.That's what keeps our Earth a warm and cozy Enhanced Greenhouse effect Too much carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the air are
making the greenhouse effect stronger.

As human population increases its activities too lead to:
burning fossil fuels
fertilizers use
cattle ranching
waste disposal in landfills

extinction of species
melting glaciers
rise in sea level
increase in photosynthetic rate
changes in climate Greenhouse Gases Ethical theory
action or policy that involves a social responsibility were action is take in harmful activities.
people taking action(campaigns, environmentalists or government) show that an action is not harmful The Precautionary
1. Evaluate the potential risk
2. Right to know
3. Evaluation of alternatives of the
4. Evaluating the cost of the alternative
5.Decision making proces Examples 5 Steps: Choose: 1.A group of populations and its abiotic facotrs is:
a) biosphere
b) species
c) saprotrophs
d) ecosystem 2.Which of these is a correct
food chain?
b) Man-->cow-->grass
c) Cow-->farm-->supermarket
d) Grass-->cow-->man 4. Name 2 consequences of the greenhouse effect 3. The biggest impacts are made on the environment by:
a)The migration of organisms
c)Human interference
d)Competition rise in sea level
changes in climate
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