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Chapter 3: Human Development (AP)

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Anne Ginnett

on 5 February 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 3: Human Development (AP)

Effective communication
uses I-messages (not you-messages) and avoids power struggles by relying on natural consequences and logical consequences

Effective Communication

Denial and isolation
: denying death’s reality and isolating oneself from information confirming that death will occur

Anger
: asking, “Why me?”; anger may then be projected onto the living

Bargaining
: terminally ill will bargain with God or with themselves

Depression:
feelings of futility, exhaustion, and deep sadness

Acceptance:
if death is not sudden, many will finally accept death calmly

Five Basic Reactions to Death

Ageism
: discrimination or prejudice based on a person’s age

Gerontologists
study aging and its effects

Intellectual abilities

Fluid abilities
: abilities requiring speed or rapid learning; based on perceptual and motor abilities; may decrease with age
Crystallized abilities:
learned (accumulated) knowledge and skills; vocabulary and basic facts

Gerontology and the Study of Aging

Generativity:
interest in guiding the next generation

Stagnation:
when one is only concerned with one’s own needs and comforts

Stage Seven: Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood)

Industry
: occurs when child is praised for productive activities, such as painting and building

Inferiority
: occurs if child’s efforts are regarded as messy or inadequate

Stage Four: Industry vs. Inferiority (6–12)

Autonomy
: doing things for themselves

Overprotective or ridiculing parents may cause children to doubt abilities and feel shameful about their actions

Stage Two: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1–3)

Preconventional moral reasoning
: moral thinking based on consequences of one’s actions (punishment, reward, exchange of favors) or choices

Conventional moral reasoning
: reasoning based on a desire to please others or to follow accepted rules and values

Postconventional moral reasoning:
follows self-chosen moral principles, not those supplied by outside authorities

Kohlberg’s Three Levels of Moral Development
Adolescence:
culturally defined period between childhood and adulthood

Puberty
: hormonal changes during adolescence that promote rapid physical growth and sexual maturity
Identity: identity formation is a key task of adolescence

Emerging adulthood:
a socially tolerated period of extended adolescence

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood


Children’s thinking develops through dialogues with more capable people
Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
Thinking now includes abstract and hypothetical ideas

Abstract principles
: concepts and examples removed from specific examples and concrete situations

Hypothetical possibilities
: suppositions, guesses, or projections

The Formal Operational Stage (11 Years and Up)

Intuitive
: makes little use of reasoning and logic

Egocentric:
child is unable to accommodate viewpoints of others; thoughts are self-centered

Preoperational Thinking

Assimilation
: application of existing mental patterns to new situations; new situation is “assimilated” to existing mental schemes

Accommodation
: existing ideas are changed to fit new requirements; mental schemes are changed to accommodate new information

Assimilation and Accommodation

Give little guidance

Overly Permissive Parents
Early attachment quality can have long-lasting effects

Attachment Quality (Ainsworth)


Emotional attachment
: close emotional bond that infants form with parents, caregivers, or others
Early Social Development

Temperament
: the inherited physical “core” of personality; includes sensitivity, irritability, distractibility, and typical mood

Developmental Level Example: Temperament
Parents can enrich a child’s environment by being responsive and providing stimulating play materials

Environmental Influences:


Sum of all external conditions that affect a person, especially the effects of learning

Environment (“Nurture”)

Influence of Heredity: Genes

Study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities; involves every stage of life from conception to death (“the womb to the tomb”)

Shaped by a continuous interaction between
heredity (nature) and environment (nurture)

Developmental Psychology

Avoid directly telling children to do something “because you are their parent”

Instead give children choices based on
natural consequences
: effects that naturally follow a particular behavior;

intrinsic effects
logical consequences
: rational and reasonable effects defined by parents

Avoiding Power Struggles

I-message:
tells children the effect their behavior had on you (use this)

You-message
: threats, name-calling, accusing, bossing, criticizing, or lecturing (avoid this)

I-Messages vs. You-Messages

Power assertion
: using physical punishment or a show of force (e.g., removing toys or privileges)

Withdrawal of love
: withholding affection

Management techniques
: combine praise, recognition, approval, rules, and reasoning to encourage desirable behavior

Types of Child Discipline

Effective parents foster positive parent-child interactions

Effective Parenting
Ross was a thanatologist: one who studies emotional and behavioral reactions to death and dying

Ross described
five basic reactions
to death that; occur not necessarily in the following order or experienced by everyone

Elizabeth Kubler-Ross on Death and Dying

Middle-aged adults (ages 35-64)
and
later adults (65 and older)
face many life challenges, especially concerning health, work, marriage, children, and parents

Midlife “corrections
” are more common than midlife crises

Old-age
is complicated by physical aging

Middle and Later Adulthood

Integrity
: self-respect; developed when people have lived richly and responsibly

Despair:
occurs when previous life events are viewed with regret; experiences heartache and remorse

Stage Eight: Integrity vs. Despair (Late Adulthood)

Intimacy:
ability to care about others and to share experiences with them

Isolation
: feeling alone and uncared for in life

Stage Six: Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood)

Identity:
for adolescents; problems answering, “Who am I?”

Role confusion
: occurs when adolescents are unsure of where they are going and who they are

Stage Five: Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence)

Initiative:
parents reinforce via giving children freedom to play, use imagination, and ask questions

Guilt
: may occur if parents criticize, prevent play, or discourage a child’s questions

Stage Three: Initiative vs. Guilt (3–5)

Children are completely dependent on others

Trust
: established when babies given adequate warmth, touching, love, and physical care

Mistrust
: caused by inadequate or unpredictable care and by cold, indifferent, and rejecting parents

Stage One: Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth–1)

Eight developmental stages
confront a person with new developmental tasks or psychosocial dilemmas

Developmental tasks
: any skill that must be mastered, or personal change that must take place, for optimal development (e.g., learning to read and adjusting to sexual maturity)

Psychosocial dilemma:
conflict between personal impulses and the social world

Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

Moral development
: period starting in childhood and continuing into adulthood during which we acquire values, beliefs, and thinking abilities that guide responsible behavior

Kohlberg was a
stage theorist
, like Freud and Erikson

Lawrence Kohlberg and Moral Development

Adults help children learn how to think by
scaffolding
, or
supporting,
their attempts to solve a problem or to discover principles

Scaffolding must be responsive to a child’s needs

Scaffolding
Range of tasks children cannot yet master alone even though they are close to having the necessary mental skills; they need guidance from a skilled partner in order to complete the task

Zone of Proximal Development

Piaget underestimated children’s thinking skills

For example, he thought children are unaware that other people have their own perspectives until age 7; i.e., they are egocentric

Recent research has established that this awareness (called theory of mind) develops as early as age 4

Theory of Mind

Conservation
: mass, weight, and volume of matter remain unchanged even when the shape or appearance of objects changes

Reversibility:
relationships involving equality or identity can be reversed (if A=B, then B=A)

Concrete operational child can watch an object change shape and mentally reverse that change to see that mass, weight, or volume remains unchanged

Concrete Operations and Reversibility

Children become able to carry out mental operations such as reversibility

Children become able to use concepts of time, space, volume, and number BUT in ways that remain simplified and concrete, not abstract

The Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 Years)

Children begin to develop mental images but cannot transform them

Transformations:
mentally changing the shape or form of a mental image or idea; children younger than 6 or 7 cannot do this

They begin to use language and to think symbolically, yet their thinking is still intuitive and egocentric

The Preoperational Stage (2-7 Years)

Sensory input and motor responses become increasingly coordinated; most intellectual development is nonverbal

Infants cannot create internal mental representations; they lack object permanence

Object permanence
: concept that objects still exist when they are out of sight

The Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 Years)


Like Freud, he was a stage theorist
Piaget also believed that the intellect grows through assimilation and accommodation
Jean Piaget and Cognitive Development

Provide firm and consistent guidance combined with love and affection
Authoritative Parents
Enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority
Authoritarian Parents
Identifiable patterns of parental caretaking and interaction with children

Parenting Styles
Newborns are born mimics

Neonates
are very responsive at birth,
with sensory capacities that will rapidly mature

Newborns (Neonates)


Developmental level
: an individual’s current state of physical, emotional, and intellectual development, influenced by heredity, environment, and a person’s own behavior

Interplay of Heredity and Environment:

low birth weight,
a small head, body defects,
facial malformations
emotional, behavioral
mental handicaps

Prenatal Environmental Influences:


Genetic disorder: problem caused by inherited characteristics from parents (e.g., cystic fibrosis)

Prenatal Environmental Influences

Readiness: ability of children to rapidly learn (e.g., walking, toilet training); limited by maturation

Influence of Heredity:

23 come from mother and 23 come from father
Heredity (“Nature”)

Human Development

Chapter 3

I-message: tells children the effect their behavior had on you (use this)
You-message: threats, name-calling, accusing, bossing, criticizing, or lecturing (avoid this)

I-Messages vs. You-Messages

Effective parents foster positive parent-child interactions
They are also effective in disciplining their children
They have stable rules of conduct (consistency)
They show mutual respect, love, encouragement, and shared enjoyment

Effective Parenting

Ageism: discrimination or prejudice based on a person’s age
Gerontologists study aging and its effects
Intellectual abilities
Fluid abilities: abilities requiring speed or rapid learning; based on perceptual and motor abilities; may decrease with age
Crystallized abilities: learned (accumulated) knowledge and skills; vocabulary and basic facts

Gerontology and the Study of Aging

Integrity: self-respect; developed when people have lived richly and responsibly
Despair: occurs when previous life events are viewed with regret; experiences heartache and remorse

Stage Eight: Integrity vs. Despair (Late Adulthood)

Industry: occurs when child is praised for productive activities, such as painting and building
Inferiority: occurs if child’s efforts are regarded as messy or inadequate

Stage Four: Industry vs. Inferiority (6–12)

Moral development: period starting in childhood and continuing into adulthood during which we acquire values, beliefs, and thinking abilities that guide responsible behavior
Kohlberg was a stage theorist, like Freud and Erikson

Lawrence Kohlberg and Moral Development

Range of tasks children cannot yet master alone even though they are close to having the necessary mental skills; they need guidance from a skilled partner in order to complete the task

Zone of Proximal Development

Pattern of speech used when talking to infants
Marked by higher-pitched voice; short, simple sentences; slowed speech and exaggerated voice inflections; and repetition

Parentese (Motherese)

African American: emphasize loyalty and interdependence, security, a positive identity, and persistence; parents stress obedience and respect for elders
Hispanic: emphasize strict standards of discipline and the centrality of the family; parents stress cooperation
Asian American: emphasize interdependence among individuals and need to set aside own goals for greater good; parents stress respect and self-discipline in older children
Arab American: emphasize politeness and conformity; parents demand obedience and respect

Ethnic Parenting Styles

Secure: stable and positive emotional bond
Insecure-avoidant: anxious emotional bond; tendency to avoid reunion with parent or caregiver
Insecure-ambivalent: anxious emotional bond; desire to be with parent or caregiver and some resistance to being reunited with mother
Early attachment quality can have long-lasting effects

Attachment Quality (Ainsworth)

Increased muscular control occurs in patterns; rate of maturation is variable, but the order of maturation is almost universal
Cephalocaudal: from head to toe
Proximodistal: from center of the body to the extremities

Early Motor Development

Deprivation: lack of normal stimulation, nutrition, comfort, or love
Enrichment: when an environment is deliberately made more complex and intellectually stimulating and emotionally supportive
Parents can enrich a child’s environment by being responsive and providing stimulating play materials

Environmental Influences: Deprivation and Enrichment

Small segments of a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information
Dominant gene: the gene’s feature will appear each time the gene is present
Recessive gene: the gene’s feature will appear only if it is paired with another recessive gene
Still only 25% chance trait will be expressed
Polygenic traits: personal traits or physical properties that are influenced by many genes working in combination

Influence of Heredity: Genes

Avoid directly telling children to do something “because you are their parent”
Instead give children choices based on
natural consequences: effects that naturally follow a particular behavior; intrinsic effects
logical consequences: rational and reasonable effects defined by parents

Avoiding Power Struggles

Effective communication uses I-messages (not you-messages) and avoids power struggles by relying on natural consequences and logical consequences

Effective Communication

Power assertion: using physical punishment or a show of force (e.g., removing toys or privileges)
Withdrawal of love: withholding affection
Management techniques: combine praise, recognition, approval, rules, and reasoning to encourage desirable behavior

Types of Child Discipline

Denial and isolation: denying death’s reality and isolating oneself from information confirming that death will occur
Anger: asking, “Why me?”; anger may then be projected onto the living
Bargaining: terminally ill will bargain with God or with themselves
Depression: feelings of futility, exhaustion, and deep sadness
Acceptance: if death is not sudden, many will finally accept death calmly

Five Basic Reactions to Death

Ross was a thanatologist: one who studies emotional and behavioral reactions to death and dying
Ross described five basic reactions to death that; occur not necessarily in the following order or experienced by everyone

Elizabeth Kubler-Ross on Death and Dying

Middle-aged adults (ages 35-64) and later adults (65 and older) face many life challenges, especially concerning health, work, marriage, children, and parents
Midlife “corrections” are more common than midlife crises
Old-age is complicated by physical aging

Middle and Later Adulthood

Generativity: interest in guiding the next generation
Stagnation: when one is only concerned with one’s own needs and comforts

Stage Seven: Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood)

Intimacy: ability to care about others and to share experiences with them
Isolation: feeling alone and uncared for in life

Stage Six: Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood)

Identity: for adolescents; problems answering, “Who am I?”
Role confusion: occurs when adolescents are unsure of where they are going and who they are

Stage Five: Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence)

Initiative: parents reinforce via giving children freedom to play, use imagination, and ask questions
Guilt: may occur if parents criticize, prevent play, or discourage a child’s questions

Stage Three: Initiative vs. Guilt (3–5)

Autonomy: doing things for themselves
Overprotective or ridiculing parents may cause children to doubt abilities and feel shameful about their actions

Stage Two: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1–3)

Children are completely dependent on others
Trust: established when babies given adequate warmth, touching, love, and physical care
Mistrust: caused by inadequate or unpredictable care and by cold, indifferent, and rejecting parents

Stage One: Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth–1)

Eight developmental stages confront a person with new developmental tasks or psychosocial dilemmas
Developmental tasks: any skill that must be mastered, or personal change that must take place, for optimal development (e.g., learning to read and adjusting to sexual maturity)
Psychosocial dilemma: conflict between personal impulses and the social world

Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

Preconventional moral reasoning: moral thinking based on consequences of one’s actions (punishment, reward, exchange of favors) or choices
Conventional moral reasoning: reasoning based on a desire to please others or to follow accepted rules and values
Postconventional moral reasoning: follows self-chosen moral principles, not those supplied by outside authorities

Kohlberg’s Three Levels of Moral Development

Adolescence: culturally defined period between childhood and adulthood
Puberty: hormonal changes during adolescence that promote rapid physical growth and sexual maturity
Identity: identity formation is a key task of adolescence
Emerging adulthood: a socially tolerated period of extended adolescence

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

Adults help children learn how to think by scaffolding, or supporting, their attempts to solve a problem or to discover principles
Scaffolding must be responsive to a child’s needs

Scaffolding

Children’s cognitive development is heavily influenced by sociocultural factors
Children’s thinking develops through dialogues with more capable people

Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

Piaget underestimated children’s thinking skills
For example, he thought children are unaware that other people have their own perspectives until age 7; i.e., they are egocentric
Recent research has established that this awareness (called theory of mind) develops as early as age 4

Theory of Mind

Thinking now includes abstract and hypothetical ideas
Abstract principles: concepts and examples removed from specific examples and concrete situations
Hypothetical possibilities: suppositions, guesses, or projections

The Formal Operational Stage (11 Years and Up)

Conservation: mass, weight, and volume of matter remain unchanged even when the shape or appearance of objects changes
Reversibility: relationships involving equality or identity can be reversed (if A=B, then B=A)
Concrete operational child can watch an object change shape and mentally reverse that change to see that mass, weight, or volume remains unchanged

Concrete Operations and Reversibility

Children become able to carry out mental operations such as reversibility
Children become able to use concepts of time, space, volume, and number BUT in ways that remain simplified and concrete, not abstract

The Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 Years)

Intuitive: makes little use of reasoning and logic
Egocentric: child is unable to accommodate viewpoints of others; thoughts are self-centered

Preoperational Thinking

Children begin to develop mental images but cannot transform them
Transformations: mentally changing the shape or form of a mental image or idea; children younger than 6 or 7 cannot do this
They begin to use language and to think symbolically, yet their thinking is still intuitive and egocentric

The Preoperational Stage (2-7 Years)

Sensory input and motor responses become increasingly coordinated; most intellectual development is nonverbal
Infants cannot create internal mental representations; they lack object permanence
Object permanence: concept that objects still exist when they are out of sight

The Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 Years)

Assimilation: application of existing mental patterns to new situations; new situation is “assimilated” to existing mental schemes
Accommodation: existing ideas are changed to fit new requirements; mental schemes are changed to accommodate new information

Assimilation and Accommodation

Piaget believed that all children passed through a set series of four stages during their cognitive development; like Freud, he was a stage theorist
Piaget also believed that the intellect grows through assimilation and accommodation

Jean Piaget and Cognitive Development

Early learning also shapes language development
Parents and babies soon come share systems of signals, which can include any behavior, such as touching, vocalizing, gazing, or smiling, that allows nonverbal interaction and turn-taking between parent and child

Environmental Roots of Language

Chomsky: language patterns are biological dispositions; i.e., they are inborn
Biological disposition: presumed readiness of humans to learn certain skills such as how to use language

Noam Chomsky and the Biological Roots of Language

Single-word stage: the child says one word at a time; starts in second year of life
Telegraphic speech: two-word sentences that communicate a single idea (e.g., “want cookie”)
After age 2, language development accelerates quickly

Language Development (cont’d)

Language development closely tied to maturation
Cooing: repetition of vowel sounds by infants; typically starts at 6-8 weeks
Babbling: repetition of meaningless language sounds (e.g., babababa); uses consonants B, D, M, and G; starts at 7 months

Language Development

Maternal influences: the sum of all effects a mother has on her child
Mothers still do most of the nurturing (physical and emotional care) and generally have a greater impact on children than do fathers
Paternal influences: the sum of all effects a father has on his child
Fathers are more likely to play with their children and tell them stories

Mothers and Fathers

Provide firm and consistent guidance combined with love and affection
Children tend to be competent, self-controlled, independent, and assertive

Authoritative Parents

Give little guidance
Allow too much freedom, or don’t hold children accountable for their actions
Children tend to be dependent and immature and frequently misbehave

Overly Permissive Parents

Enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority
Children tend to be emotionally stiff and lacking in curiosity

Authoritarian Parents

Identifiable patterns of parental caretaking and interaction with children

Parenting Styles (Baumrind)

A sure sign of emotional attachment is separation anxiety: crying and signs of fear when a child is left alone or is with a stranger; generally appears around 8-12 months
Separation anxiety disorder: severe and prolonged distress displayed by some children when separated from parents/caregivers; children usually grow out of this
Affectional needs: emotional needs for love and affection

Early Social Development: Attachment

Rooted in emotional attachment to primary caregivers and the need for physical contact
Emotional attachment: close emotional bond that infants form with parents, caregivers, or others
Contact comfort (Harlow): pleasant and reassuring feeling babies get from touching something warm and soft, especially their mother

Early Social Development

Newborns are born mimics
They rapidly begin to learn about the world from birth as they explore, and try to make sense of, their surroundings
Their senses also develop quickly

Early Perceptual and Cognitive Development

Sucking reflex
Touch an object or nipple to the infant’s mouth, and she’ll make rhythmic sucking movements
Moro reflex
If a baby’s position is abruptly changed or if he is startled by a loud noise, he will make a hugging motion

Newborn Reflexes (cont’d)

Grasping reflex
If an object is placed in the neonate’s palm, she’ll grasp it automatically
Rooting reflex
Lightly touch the infant’s cheek, and he’ll turn toward the object and attempt to nurse; helps infant find bottle or breast

Newborn Reflexes

Neonates are very responsive at birth, with sensory capacities that will rapidly mature
They are also born with a number of reflexes, relatively automatic motor responses (i.e., they come from nature, not nurture)

Newborns (Neonates)

An easy child will encourage positive parenting; a difficult child may make parents more negative
Parental reactions, in turn, can make an easy child “easier” or a difficult child more difficult
Alternately, committed parenting can counteract a child’s temperament, producing positive growth

Developmental Level Example: Temperament (cont’d)

Temperament: the inherited physical “core” of personality; includes sensitivity, irritability, distractibility, and typical mood
Easy children: 40%; relaxed and agreeable
Difficult children: 10%; moody, intense, easily angered
Slow-to-warm-up children: 15%; restrained, unexpressive, shy
Remaining children: do not fit into any specific category

Developmental Level Example: Temperament

Limits that one’s environment places on the effects of heredity
Developmental level: an individual’s current state of physical, emotional, and intellectual development, influenced by heredity, environment, and a person’s own behavior

Interplay of Heredity and Environment: Reaction Range

Early experiences can have long-lasting effects because of sensitive periods
Sensitive period: a period of increased sensitivity to environmental influences; also, a time when certain events must occur for normal development to take place

Environmental Influences: Sensitive Periods

Anything capable of directly causing birth defects (e.g., narcotics, radiation, cigarette smoke, lead, and cocaine)
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): caused by repeated heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy
FAS infants have low birth weight, a small head, body defects, facial malformations, along with emotional, behavioral, and mental handicaps

Prenatal Environmental Influences: Teratogens

Congenital problem: a problem or defect that occurs during prenatal development; “birth defect”
Genetic disorder: problem caused by inherited characteristics from parents (e.g., cystic fibrosis)

Prenatal Environmental Influences

Sum of all external conditions that affect a person, especially the effects of learning

Environment (“Nurture”)

Physical growth and development of the body, brain, and nervous system
Human growth sequence: sequence in which genetic instructions influence the developing body and mind
Readiness: ability of children to rapidly learn (e.g., walking, toilet training); limited by maturation

Influence of Heredity: Maturation

Genetic transmission, via genes, of physical and psychological characteristics from parents to their children
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): molecular structure shaped like a double helix that contains coded genetic information
Chromosomes: 46 segments of DNA containing genes
23 come from mother and 23 come from father

Heredity (“Nature”)

Study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities; involves every stage of life from conception to death (“the womb to the tomb”)
Shaped by a continuous interaction between heredity (nature) and environment (nurture)

Developmental Psychology

Chapter 3:
Human Development

Gene characteristics from parents to their children
Chromosomes: 46 segments of DNA containing genes
Small segments of a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information
Dominant gene: the gene’s feature will appear each time the gene is present
Recessive gene: the gene’s feature will appear only if it is paired with another recessive gene
Still only 25% chance trait will be expressed
Physical growth and development of the body, brain, and nervous system
Human growth sequence: sequence in which genetic instructions influence the developing body and mind
Maturation
Synapses
Congenital problem: a problem or defect that occurs during prenatal development; “birth defect”
Teratogens
Anything capable of directly causing birth defects (e.g., narcotics, radiation, cigarette smoke, lead, and cocaine)
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
:
Deprivation
: lack of normal stimulation, nutrition, comfort, or love
Enrichment
: when an environment is deliberately made more complex and intellectually stimulating and emotionally supportive
Deprivation and Enrichment
Stick Out Your Tongue
Rolling
Folding
Rollers & Folders = Dominant
Those who cannot = 2 Recessive Genes
Do your ears
hang low?
Earlobes Detached?
Earlobes Attached?
How many people have attached earlobes?
Recessive trait = 2 recessive genes (20 - 25%)
Early experiences can have long-lasting effects because of sensitive periods
Maze Rich Rats?
Remaining children: do not fit into any specific category
Slow-to-warm-up children
: 15%; restrained, un-expressive, shy
Easy children:
40%; relaxed and agreeable
Difficult children: 10%; moody, intense, easily angered
They are also born with a number of reflexes, relatively automatic motor responses
(i.e., they come from nature, not nurture)
Reflexes
Rooting
Grasping
Sucking
Moro Reflex
Rooted in emotional attachment to primary caregivers and the need for physical contact
Contact comfort (Harlow)
: pleasant and reassuring feeling babies get from touching something warm and soft, especially their mother
Secure:
stable and positive emotional bond
I
nsecure-avoidant
: anxious emotional bond; tendency to avoid reunion with parent or caregiver
Insecure-ambivalent:
anxious emotional bond; desire to be with parent or caregiver and some resistance to being reunited with mother
Children tend to be emotionally stiff and lacking in curiosity
Children tend to be dependent and immature and frequently misbehave
Allow too much freedom, or don’t hold children accountable for their actions
Children tend to be competent, self-controlled, independent, and assertive
Group Activity
Teenager Comes Home Late
8 Year Old Refuses to Clean His Room
5 Year Old Keeps leaving Her Bike in Driveway
Choose 1 scenerio, act out all 3 parenting styles
Piaget believed that all children passed through a set series of four stages during their cognitive development;
Children’s cognitive development is heavily influenced by sociocultural factors
They show mutual respect, love, encouragement, and shared enjoyment
They are also effective in disciplining their children
They have stable rules of conduct (consistency)
Babinski
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