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Cells and Organ Systems

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Cassie Grether

on 27 January 2016

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Transcript of Cells and Organ Systems

All life does all of the following:
1. made of living cells
2. metabolizes (uses food for energy)
3. Response to its environment
4. moves
5. All cells replicate or reproduce.
Was once alive
1. has cells
2. doesn't do anything else that life does
C. Is non-living
1. does not have cells
II. Cells
All living things are made up of cells.
Cells are the building blocks of all living things.
Organism: a living creature
can be made of just one cell (unicellular)
ex: bacteria, plankton
or can be multicellular (made of two or more cells)
ex: plants, animals
You started as one cell.
tiny grain of sand
Inside this baby exists all of the plans to grow and develop into an adult. Those plans are called DNA.
Prokaryotic cell
Sugars and proteins make up the cell wall.
Cell Membrane
"The Gate Keeper"
Thin layer that keeps everything inside the cell. Lets only certain things in.
Cell wall
"Cellulose house" (Type of complex sugar)
Contains plant cells and gives plant stiff structure.
Fluid filling cell; all organelles hang out in this.
Mastermind. Controls what goes on and gives instruction tot eh rest of the organelles; Also holds all DNA
Construction workers
build proteins for the cell to us.
"Powerhouse of the cell"
Takes food and digests it into energy for the cell; muscle cells have a lot of these.
Golgi body
"Packaging plant"
combines molecules into more complex molecules then packages them for storage; also sends stuff out of the cell.
Stores everything from food, water to waste, but mainly water
Much bigger in plants, Why?
Helps in digestion of food and
old cell parts. (If body is starving, this organelle begins to eat other organelles.
"Magic workers"
take light energy and makes it into food (animals do not have these organelles)
Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms
Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems, Organisms
Organelle Practice
1. cell: smallest unit of a living organism. Some organisms are made of just one cell, some are made of many; ex: white blood cell
2. tissue: two or more cell types working together to perform a function; ex: muscle tissue, blood
4. Organ systems: Organs working together with similar functions or tasks.
ex: digestive system, muscular system.
5. Organism: organ systems in the same body is an organism (in higher animals/plants)
What has cells, what does not?

Aspen Tree
Responsible for body's structure
Most complex level of organization
Least complex level of organization
esophagus + stomach + intestines
2 or more types of cells working together
Heart, blood vessels & blood
11 Body Systems
Reproductive System
Quick and painless
well... mostly
Purpose: sexual reproduction (aka making babies) & producing sexual hormones and pheromones
Major organs: uterus, ovaries, testes, penis
Integumentary System
say what???
Let's say it together.
system is the skin and all other tissues working together to protect you.
Close up look at hair.
Hair is a modified dead skin cell mostly made out of protein called keratin.
Hair serves as a way to keep the body warm, and also when it is drenched in sweat, to keep it cool.
Nails, like hair, are also dead. They are made out of a protein called keratin too.
Other animals make stuff out of keratin too.
another component to the
Integumentary system....
is the
Skin has many layers.
The outer ones are dead. They protect you by shedding away.
It is estimated that 25-40% of the dust in your home comes from dead skin cells either from you and/or from your pets.
Skin cells live about 2-3 weeks.
There are many types of skin cells.
Integumentary System
Purpose: protects from disease and harm, regulates body temperature, Vitamin D synthesis, and acts as a sense organ

Major components: skin, hair, nails, sweat and oil glands
Skin also has stuff to keep it from over heating and drying out. That is what sweat glands are for.
Because many nerves run through the skin to receive outside information, the skin is considered a sensory organ. It is also the largest organ in the entire body.
Circulatory System
Endocrine System
Circulatory system...
What does circulate mean?
Circulate: pass or cause to pass from place to place or person to person
The circulatory system circulates blood throughout your body.
Your body needs blood to...
Bring nutrients, food, oxygen, water, hormones to our cells
Also, removes waste such as used chemicals, dead blood cells, carbon dioxide.
Lastly, blood clots.
Blood is a tissue and part of the veins and arteries.
What is blood made of?
Blood is made up of blood plasma and various cells — red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Platelets help blood clot. Hemoglobin is in red blood cells. White blood cells help fight infections and heal wounds.
Red blood cells
Transport nutrients, food, oxygen and wastes where they need to go. Red blood cells do not have a nucleus.
White blood cells
Defend the body by attacking "foreign invaders".
contain a nucleus.
A liquid (cytoplasm) that when exposed to other chemicals begins to clot. This is what a scab is... platelets with other chemicals reacting and changing it into a stiff substance- a natural band aid.
The blood, which is a tissue in the circulatory system, has different types.
Different people who developed over many generations in special geographic areas developed different types.
Blood Types & Discovery
Blood flows or circulates from the heart in the arteries. Arteries have valves and muscles that help make arteries bigger or smaller.
Veins circulate blood from the body back to the heart. It is full of waste products which it will drop off in the liver, kidneys, or lungs for disposal. They also have valves to prevent the blood from flowing backwards.
Both veins and arteries are organs. Part of this organ is the capillaries. These are tiny vessels that carry blood.
Skeletal System
What color is it?
Circulatory System
Purpose: transports food, wastes, oxygen and provides immunity (healing properties)
That's another weird word... Let's say this one together too!
Endocrine system...
is a series of glands and the pancreas that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system. They are all run by the hypothalamus.
Endocrine system
Major organs: hypothalamus, glands, and pancreas
Purpose: secretes hormones to communicate and/or control body mechanisms
Endo = within
crine = secrete
Root words....
Endocrine... what does it all mean???
Glands secrete HORMONES!!!!!
Dunn, dun, duuuuunn.....
What is a hormone?
a regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as blood or sap to stimulate specific cells or tissues into action.
Chemicals that are released in your body to tell your body to do stuff.
So what we talkin' about here?
pineal gland
pituitary gland
(ovaries & testes)
thyroid gland
adrenal glands
And they are all controlled by the part of your brain called the...
controls the growth, development and functioning of the other glands.
Only in vertebrates, produces melatonin which controls sleep cycles.
Testosterone, estrogen, progesterone and pheromones.
secretes hormones that control growth and metabolism (how your body burns energy).
also produces sex hormones AND cortisol, which helps your body respond to stress. Increase blood sugar, suppresses the immune system, and to aids in metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrate. It also decreases bone formation.
a large gland behind the stomach; secretes digestive enzymes; also secretes the hormones insulin (regulates how much sugar is in blood) and glucagon (helps break down body food storage in liver)
Controls many body functions such as: temperature, thirst, hunger, and other homeostatic (keeping body in balance) systems, and involved in sleep and emotional activity.
All of your bones, and tissues like tendons, ligaments, and cartilage that connect them together. Teeth are not bones, but are also part of the skeletal system.
The hardest things in your entire body...
The rest is just calcified tissues or enamel (made up of minerals).
The only living portion of the tooth.
They can't repair themselves like bones can.
but they aren't even bondes
but they aren't classified as bones!
Skeletal System
Includes all of your tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bones and teeth.
Skeletal System
Attach muscles to bones.
Skeletal System
...hold together bones and joints.
Skeletal System
Skeletal System
Bones give support to the body AND MAKE BLOOD!!!
Skeletal System
Purpose: provide support/structure and make blood

Muscular System
Muscular system
Purpose: bodily movement and creates body heat; maintains posture and circulates blood.
Muscular System- not just what you see
Muscular system
Skeletal Muscles
muscles that attach to the skeletal system to make you move.
Smooth muscle
Lines your stomach, intestines and other internal organs. Not under your control.
Muscular System
Cardiac Muscle
Muscular System
contracts the heart to allow the circulatory system to work.
SA node transmits and electrical signal that controls your heart beat. You don't have control of this muscle either.
Nervous System
Respiratory System
Lymphatic System
Urinary System
Digestive System
Nervous System
Purpose: controls body, and communication
Information travels within the brain and through the body by electrical impulses.
This information tells you...
your leaning
it's hot
that is sharp
move that muscle and walk
everything you sense
Then it is sent to the brain to be decoded.
that was loud
That is red
Respiratory System
Respiratory as in to respire
Purpose: take in oxygen get rid of carbon dioxide

Part of the circulatory system
Spleen filters out blood, removes foreign invaders, and is a blood reservoir (extra blood storage)
Captures fluid that leave the capillaries a filters/cleans them
Absorbs fat from the intestines and delivers to circulatory system.
Immune defense against viruses, bacteria, and fungi
Releases lymphocytes (white blood cells and others) into the circulatory system.
Lymphatic System also
Lymphatic System
Sends waste materials to the proper facility
Purpose: filter blood; absorbs fat from intestine, immune response
Major components: lymph vessels, nodes, spleen
Lymphatic System
Purpose: removes waste/toxins & does electrolyte/water balance

Urinary System
Urinary System
Removes useful stuff, like water and nutrients, and puts it back into the blood.
Takes other stuff (urea, salts, acid/base, toxins) to help maintain health and good blood pressure.
Urinary System
waste product from protein metabolism.
Digestive System
Purpose: breaks down food, absorbs nutrients & water, removes waste

Digestive System
Eating System
Basically, you take in food, break it down, absorb what you can, and return what's left when you are done.
Animal & Plant Cells
Cells contain cytoplasm and organelles
organelles: organs of the cells, the carry out specific functions that keep the cell living
All prokaryotic organisms are unicellular
One more thing about cells is:
Every cell is made from another cell.
They duplicate their DNA and split into two cells each with their own nucleus (this is called mitosis)
Old cell division clip 1:10
Cancer cells 8:51
Cell, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems
Cells use their semipermeable membranes to hold in materials and keep others out. It is a protective barrier.
Food like fats, sugars, and proteins and other substances like wastes and secretions require the cell to use energy to let them in and out.
Water molecules pass through the membrane naturally.
Osmosis: The natural movement of water molecules from a region of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration.

Solute: a dissolved substance in a fluid (solvent)
Examples: salt dissolved in water to make salt water. Another example of solute- sugar
In a cell osmosis occurs naturally moving water form the blood stream into the cell or out of the cell. This occurs in all living cells.
Draw the Osmosis Animal Cell diagram.
Substance move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration (ie they spread out)
Diffusion of Carbon Dioxide & Oxygen
Blood absorbs oxygen into the body in the lungs through diffusion.

Carbon dioxide and water vapor diffusion out of the blood through the lungs.
Draw Diagram in NOTES
3. Organ: made up of tissues working together to perform a specific function. ex: heart, lungs
Major organs: brain, brain stem, spinal cord and nerves
Major organs: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs (alveoli cells)
Organs: heart, blood vessels
Major components: mouth, pharynx, esophagus,
stomach, pancreas,intestines, rectum & anus
Major organs: kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
Major components: skeletal muscles, smooth and cardiac muscles.
Major components: bones
, ligaments, tendons, cartilage, teeth.
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