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Chapter 17: Organizational change and stress management

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Taylor Larsen

on 27 April 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 17: Organizational change and stress management

Forces for Change
Approaches to Managing Organizational Change
• Lewin’s Three-Step Model:
o Unfreezing the status quo
 Increase Driving Forces
 Decrease Restraining Forces
 Combination of both
o Movement to a desired state
o Refreezing the change
 Important step
 Establish stability
 Maintain change by balancing DF and RF

Creating a Culture for Change
Innovation
: a new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service
Sources of innovation
Organic structures
Long management tenure
Extra resources
High cross-company communication
Idea Champions
: people who actively and enthusiastically promote it, build support, overcome resistance, and ensure it's implemented

Work Stress And Its Consequences
Physiological Symptoms
Psychological Symptoms
Behavioral Symptoms
Resistance to Change
Chapter 17: Organizational change and stress management

Overcoming Resistance to Change
Summary And Implication For Managers
Managing Stress
The real world is ALWAYS changing
Managers shape an organization's "change culture."
Work stress can be positive or negative.
Low to moderate amounts of stress enable many people to perform their jobs better.
High levels of stress, or even a moderate amount sustained over a long period, will hinder performance.
Group Six Presentation

Sarah Johnson, Allegra Korver, Taylor Larsen, Connor Parkes, Jacob Little, Lim Lo, and Dallas Cox

Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan for Implementing Change
o Establish sense of urgency
o Form a coalition
o Create a new vision for change
o Effectively communicate it
o Remove barriers and obstacles
o Plan for, create, and reward short-term “wins”
o Consolidate improvements, reassess change, and make adjustments
o Reinforce the changes


Underlying values:
o Respect for People
o Trust and Support
o Power Equalization
o Confrontation
o Participation





OD techniques/interventions:
o Survey Feedback
o Process Consultation
o Team Building
o Intergroup Development
o Appreciative Inquiry
Organizational Development
Driving Forces
Restraining Forces
Step 2: Movement
Step 3: Refreezing
Step 1: Unfreezing
Individual Approaches
Organizational Approaches
Time Management Techniques
Physical Exercise
Relaxation Techniques
Social Support
Employee Selection/Placement and Training
Realistic Goal Setting
Job Redesigning
Improved Employee Involvement and Communication
Corporate Wellness Program
1.
Education and Communication
Communicating the logic of change can reduce employee resistance
2 .
Participation
Having employees actively participate in a change can reduce resistance
3.
Building Support and Commitment
Employees are more accepting of changes when they are committed to the organization as a whole
4.
Develop Positive Relationships
People are more willing to accept change if they trust the managers implementing them
Overcoming Resistance to Change
5.
Implement Changes Fairly
6.
Manipulation and Cooptation
Manipulation
-
Shrewd or devious management, especially for one's own advantage.

Cooptation
-
“seeking to “buy off” leaders of a resistance group by giving them a key role, seeking their advice not to find a better solution but to get their endorsement.”
7.
Hire People Who Accept Change
8.
Coercion

Direct threats of force on the resisters

Resistance to Change-Individual Sources
Resistance to Change-Organizational Sources
1.
Structural inertia
Organizations have built in mechanisms- like their selection processing and formalized regulations- to produce stability. When an organization is confronted with change, this structural inertia acts as counterbalance to sustain stability.
2.
Limited focus of change
Organizations are made up of a number of interdependent subsystems. One cannot be changed without affecting the others. So limited changes in subsystems tend to be nullified by the larger system.
3.
Group inertia
Even if individuals want to change their behavior, group norms may act as a constraint.
4.
Threat to expertise
Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups
5.
Threat to established power relationships
6.
Threat to established resource allocation
1. Habit
2. Security
3. Economic factors
4. Fear of the unknown
5. Selective information processing
*inertia- Resistance or disinclination to motion, action, or change
We often see change as threatening
Resistance to change can be positive if it leads to open discussion and debate
Change agents
Resistance can be overt, implicit, immediate, or deferred
Sources of resistance are both individual and organizational
Consequences by Job Type
Blue-Collar
Work Stressor: Noise
Females: irritability, anxiety, depression
Males: post-work irritability
Increased work accidents and sickness absence
White-Collar
Interpersonal conflict at work
Link to "psychiatric morbidity"
Consequences by Job Type
Managerial Employees
Work load and role ambiguity
Depression
"Caring" Professions
Work demands and poor support
Depression
Sources
Tennant, C. (2001). Work-related stress and depressive disorders.
Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 51
(5), 697-704. Retrieved April 19, 2015, from Science Direct.
Organizational Development
Collection of change methods that try to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being
Methods value:
Human and Organizational growth
Collaborative/Participative processes
Spirit of inquiry
Change is always happening in an organization
Every organization must adapt to changing environments
Multicultural environments
Demographic Changes
Immigration
Outsourcing
What causes change in the workplace?
Technology
Economic Shocks
Competition
Social Trends
World Politics
Robbins, S. P. and Judge, T. A. (2013).
Essentials of Organizational Behavior.
12th edn. Boston: Prentice Hall.
Activity
Arrange your straws in this formation
Using these 6 straws, create 4 triangles
Full transcript