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Natural Gas

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Julia Fisher

on 7 February 2014

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Transcript of Natural Gas

Natural Gas: The Bridge Fuel to a Brighter, More Sustainable Future
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
What is natural gas?
In its purest form, natural gas is a combustible mixture of odorless and colorless hydrocarbon gases found deep within the Earth.
Consists mostly of Methane (CH4)
Where is natural gas found?
Natural gas is found all over the world, under the Earth's surface
It is trapped under impermeable geological formations known as
sedimentary basins
, which are typically dome shaped
Besides Alaska, the U.S' main supplies of natural gas are found in the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico, including Texas and Louisiana
Advantages of Natural Gas
Cleanest of all fossil fuels
Disadvantages of Natural Gas
Releases C02 when burned
Government subsidies
Environmental cost not included in market price
Pipes can leak methane
Difficult to transfer
Can only be shipped in form of highly explosive LNG
Extraction/ hydraulic fracturing is harmful to the environment
By: Julia Fisher, Ryan Mundy, Richie Hong
A window to the future: An in depth look at the composition, extraction, benefits and drawbacks of natural gas
Natural Gas
How is natural gas formed?
How is natural gas extracted?
First, experts determine an area suitable for natural gas drilling. If the well is approved, the extraction process begins.
The most common technique for removing natural gas is called
hydraulic fracturing
or "fracking."
Fracking is usually effective in extraction, however there are many risks and factors to consider.
There are two types of natural gas.
Deep in the Earth's crust under intense pressure and heat, carbon bonds in decomposing organisms break, producing
thermogenic methane
Methane-producing microorganisms living closer to the Earth's surface, called methanogens, break down organic matter to produce
biogenic methane.
Hydraulic fracturing is the use of sand, water, and chemicals injected at high pressures to blast open shale rock and release the trapped gas inside.

The first concept of induced hydraulic fracturing was used in the 1940s, however fracking has only been used as a commercial form of extraction since the 1990s.

New fracking technology is making it possible to reach deeper than ever before.
Russia- 27%
Iran- 15%
Qatar- 14%
U.S.- 3%
However, we use 27% of the world's annual production of natural gas
Distribution of Natural Gas
Important Vocabulary
Conventional natural gas-
Found above reservoirs of crude oil. Cannot be used unless a natural gas pipeline has been built. It is often seen as an unwanted byproduct and burned off during oil extraction, thus wasting a valuable energy resource.
Unconventional natural gas-
Also found in underground sources. Examples:
Coal bed methane gas-
found in coal beds near Earth's surface across U.S. and Canada. Causes land scarring and pollution.
Methane hydrate-
methane trapped in icy, cage-like structures of water molecules. Found in Arctic Tundra, Alaska, Siberia, and deep beneath ocean. Expensive and releases C02.
Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG)
Liquified propane and butane removed from a natural gas field. Stored in pressurized tanks for use in rural areas. Left over methane is dried, filtered and pumped into pipelines for distribution.
Liquified Natural Gas (LNG)
Highly flammable form of natural gas under high pressure and low temperatures so that it can be transported across ocean on refrigerated tanker ships. Can be reheated and converted back to gaseous state before being distributed by pipelines.
Important Vocabulary
Ample supplies (known reserves should last 62-125 years at current rate of consumption)
High energy yield
Low cost
Easily transported by pipeline
Low land use
Good fuel for fuel cells, gas turbines, and motor vehicles
Costs of Natural Gas
Natural gas is a versatile fuel that can be used to:
heat space and water
produce electricity through medium-sized turbines (almost twice as energy efficient as coal-burning and nuclear power plants)
fuel vehicles
How long will supplies of natural gas last?
According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the U.S. has 2,203 trillion cubic feet in natural gas. We use 24 Tcf of natural gas per year, so supplies will last for about 92 years at the current rate of consumption.
In Texas, the Texas Emissions Reduction Act is allocating $10 million to convert petroleum vehicles to natural gas vehicles.
The government does not provide incentives to protect the environment or citizens from polluted water and waste caused by hydraulic fracking.
In Southern CA, the average price for fueling a natural gas vehicle is $2.70 per gge (gasoline gallon equivalent), compared to $3.58 per gallon for regular gasoline.
Pay Attention!
#1:What does natural gas mostly consist of?

#2: What type of rock does hydraulic fracturing usually target?

#3: Name one advantage and one disadvantage of natural gas.

Risks of Fracking
During the fracturing process, harmful pollutants like methane and can leak out and contaminate ground water supplies which most cities use for fresh water supplies
Only 30-50% of fracturing fluid used is recovered. The rest is left in the ground.
The wastes are left in open air pits, and left to evaporate, releasing harmful chemicals into our atmosphere.
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