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Systemic Functional Grammar
Transcript of Systemic Functional Grammar
lexical (collocation) Syntagmatic or grammatical/
lexical (the lexical set) The lexico-grammar cline GROUP 2 Ainur Rifqoh
Ishak Sukma Wijaya
Haris Pratama Paradicmatic/
grammatical (the grammatical system) Grammaticalization Any Questions?? Starting at the lexical end - with the 'content words' of the vocabulary - we find names of entities (person and things), names of processes (actions, events, etc.) and names of qualities.
Here, persons and things are named by nouns, qualities by adjectives, and processes by verbs. Verb, noun, and adjective are grammatical classes - classes of word. WORD CLASSES can be viewed from above from round about The measure of collocation is the degree to which the probability of a word (lexical item) increases given the presence of a certain other word (the node) within a specified range (the span). The Famous Jacaranda trees of Pretoria
Pretoria noun GRAMMATICAL The Famous Jacaranda trees of Pretoria The Deictic
Of Pretoria Qualifier SYNTAGMATIC Paradigmatically. Lexical items function in sets having shared semantic feature and common patterns of collocation. the corpus might show that they have in common a tendency to collocate with names of colours, various forms of the item grow and so on. such sets are typically fuzzy, with doubtful or part time member(for example : bush, blossom ). Typically, the semantic features that link the members of a lexical set are those of synonymy or antonym, hyponymy, and meronymy : that is, they are words which are alike or opposed in meaning, words that are sub-types of the same type (cohyponyms: oak , palm, pine, …. As kinds of tree),or parts of the same whole(comeronyms : branch,root, trunk as parts of tree). Joy is related to happiness, gladness, and pleasure, and also to its opposites sadness and distress. These absent items do not need to be mentioned ;they are part of the meaning of the items that are there in the text, virtually present once the relevant vectors have been established. Lexicogrammar' is a term peculiar to systemic functional to describe the continuity between grammar and lexis. (Halliday) The relation of grammar to lexis as one of a 'cline'. LEXICO-GRAMMAR
(Stratum of wording) GRAMMAR
(Closed Systems, general in meaning structure) LEXIS
(Open set, specific in meaning collocation) Grammaticalization (also known as grammatization, grammaticization) is a process by which words representing objects and actions (i.e. nouns and verbs) transform through sound change and language migration to become grammatical objects (affixes and prepositions, etc.). There are three properties that characterize a grammatical system : closure, generality, and proportionality. Grammaticalization is not dependent on how categories are realized. They may be realized in a variety of ways :
•A change in the form, articulatory or prosodic, of some words;
•An addition of some element, to a word, a group or a clause;
•A change in the order of words, groups, or clauses. We can recognize grammaticalization as a process taking place in time in fact in three distinct dimensions of time (Halliday and Matthiessen, 1999: 17-18) :
•Logogenetic time Grammatical categories are organized in systems. There is a system of PERSON which is intersects with a system of NUMBER. The way these two combine varies among different languages; for the version found in (modern standard) English. Thus, through the resources of his lexicogrammar, Mandela construes each South African as an individual while linking them all inclusively with himself and with each other. Flg. 2-4 The system of PLURALITY Mandela is of course making a very large number of grammatical choices with every clause in his text. All of them contribute to the total meaning; certain ones among them may stand out as creating patterns that resonate strongly with the context of the occasion.
In the material clauses, the central participant is some part of the environment: trees, soil, flowers and the abstract seasons. In the mental clauses, it is we/us and the abstract national mood. Flg. 2-5 Semantic relationships in Mandela text construed by grammatical systems Placing some features of the wording, both lexical items and grammatical categories, in their syntagmatic and paradigmatic contexts in the system of the language. As the text unfolds, patterns emerge some of which acquire added value through resonating with other patterns in the text or in the context of situation.