Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


202 - America in World War II

No description

Kevin Grimm

on 17 February 2019

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of 202 - America in World War II

The Troubling 1930s

Threatening international environment:
- 1922 Italy goes fascist
- 1931 Japanese invade Manchuria
- 1937 Japanese invade rest of China
- 1933 Adolf Hitler comes to power in Germany - pursues rearmament, remilitarizes Rhineland
- 1935 Italy conquers Ethiopia
- 1936-1939 Spanish Civil War - fascist General Francisco Franco (w/German + Italian support) vs. democratic gov./socialists/anarchists (w/Soviet + independent American support)
- 1938 Germany takes Austria, part (then all) of Czechoslovakia
- Jews lose citizenship, property seized, already going to camps

U.S. reactions:
- 1935 Neutrality Acts - no travel on belligerent ships, no arms to belligerents
- arms embargo during Spanish Civil War (works in support of fascists)

The war begins:
- Sep. 1 1939 German-Soviet invasion of Poland
- June 1940 - France, Denmark, Netherlands, Norway, Belgium in German hands
- Britain stands alone June 1940 - June 1941

U.S. involvement before Pealr Harbor:
- 1940 "cash and carry"
- Sep. 1940 first peacetime draft
- 1941 Lend-Lease
The War at Home
- new agencies - allocation of labor, shipping industry, manufacturing quotas, fixed wages/prices/rents
- unemployment at 2% by 1943 and GDP more than doubles during war
- gov. spends double the money during war than spent in previous 150 years
- 1945 - 15 million in unions, 1/3 of non-farm labor force

- Hollywood films glorify independent woman
- advertising celebrates Rosie the Riveter, etc.
- 1944 make up 1/3 of civilian labor force, including industry/professional jobs
- first time that married women outnumber young single women in workforce

Postwar retraction:
- work had been in language of sacrifice/military victory, not rights, independence, or self-determination
- women lose better paying industrial jobs
- postwar vision of family as bedrock, with women in a house full of new appliances and consumer goods

America in World War II
African Americans and the War
- Second Great Migration for industrial jobs - 700,000
- one million serve - often in non-combat roles as in WWI, but not all
- northern blacks on bases in South experience discrimination firsthand
- local administration of GI Bill means they are blocked from good colleges, limited in job training programs, could not get loans for farm purchases in South

- 1941 A. Philip Randolph calls for March on Washington to protest discrimination in defense jobs
- FDR issues Executive Order 8802 - bans discrimination in defense industries that receive gov. contracts
- Fair Employment Practices Commission monitors this
- Feb. 1942 Pittsburgh Courier announces Double V Campaign - victory over fascism abroad and racism/segregation at home
- 1944-1945 navy desegregates (army completes this under Eisenhower in 1950s)
Americans in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in Spain, 1930s
The 1920s Abroad
1922 - Washington Naval Arms Conference
- famous 5:5:3:1.67:1.67 naval ton ratio

- 1923 French seizure of Ruhr area of Germany
- 1924 Dawes Plan - reparations reduced/U.S. loans to Germany

U.S.-Soviet relations:
- no U.S. recognition of gov. until 1933
- U.S. goals - isolate Russia internationally, but engage economically
- U.S. aid during famine of 1921-22
- Ford, GE, Westinghouse invests millions
- 1930 - U.S. providing 25% of goods entering Russia
- Stalin's first Five Year Plan (1928) uses two thousand American engineers
FDR and Pearl Harbor

- July-August 1941 FDR freezes Japanese assets, cuts off trade (oil)
- Dec. 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor
- does FDR intentionally force Japanese to turn south?

Precursors to Cold War
The War Years:
- Stalin angry over Western hesitancy to open second front
- Stalin insisted on fall 1939 borders (Nazi-Soviet Pact) - FDR refuses
- framework for postwar global capitalist system:
1944 Bretton Woods Conference - 45 nations
gold standard/U.S. dollar/other currencies
World Bank - backs up private loans
IMF - loans to stabilize currencies to avoid devaluation
remove trade barriers and avoid postwar depression
American vs. Soviet Motivations

United States:
- global economic system of free trade/open markets to prevent depression again
- democratic governments will ensure American security - "two moat" defense obsolete in era of massive air/naval/nuclear power
- Soviets threatened both of these goals - failure to stand up to dictators led to WWII
Divisions during Tehran and Potsdam conferences (1945)
- communist "Lublin" Poles vs. non-communist "London" Poles (overall makeup of Eastern Europe)
- Germany - Western vision of de-Nazified but economically reconstructed/democratic nation vs. Soviet vision of prostrate nation/reparations
- atomic bombs - Stalin knows U.S. has bomb, but Truman won't admit it
- recovery/reconstruction
- "friendly" governments in Poland, Germany, Eastern Europe
- fears of capitalist conspiracy/encirclement
- inevitability of inter-capitalist war - need to be ready to either fight or gain from it

ideologies, wartime experiences, goals for postwar world, personal fears/desires of leaders are all different
Full transcript