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Assignment 1: Structure and Function of the Skeletal System

BTEC level 3 in sport
by

Miss Watson

on 10 January 2016

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Transcript of Assignment 1: Structure and Function of the Skeletal System

Principles of Anatomy and Physiology:
1.1 Structure of the Skeletal System

Learning Intentions
To know the structure and the skeletal system
To know all three classifications of joint and the movement available at each
To describe the axial and appendicular skeleton and locate the names of all the major bones
Structure of the skeletal system
The skeletal system is made up of:
Bones
Cartilage
Joints
The function of the skeletal system is to provide:
Protection
Shape
Support
Movement
Blood production
Joints are also important, giving you the freedom to flex or rotate parts of your body. However this gets harder with age, as your bones lose their strength and density.
The human body is made up of 206 bones, which are divided into two groups: 80 form your axial skelton; the other 126 form your appendicular skelton.
Bones of the Human Skeleton
Label the bones of the human skeleton.
Axial Skeleton
The axial skeleton forms the main axis or core of your sleletal system, it is made up of 80 bones and consists of the:

Skull (cranium andd facial bones)
Thorax (sternum and ribs)
Vertebral column

Task: colour in the axial section of the skeleton

Task: Label the axial skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton
The appendicular skeleton consists of the shoulder and the pelvic girdle

The shoulder girdle consists of four bones which connect the limbs of the upper body to the thorax
2 clavicles
2 scapulae

The upper limbs consist of 60 bones. Each upper limb is made up of:
1 humerus
1 radius
1 ulna
8 carples
5 metacarpals
14 phalanges
Appendicular Skeleton
The pelvic girdles main function is to provide a solid base through which to transmit the weight of the upper body and protect the digestive and reproductive organs. The pelvic girdle consists of three bones:
Ilium
Pubis
Ischium

The lower limbs consist of 60 bones. Each lower limb is made up of:
1 femur
1 tibua
1 fibua
1 patella
7 tarsals
5 metatarsals
14 phalanges
These bones are designed for weight bearing locomotion and maintaining an upright posture.
Appendicular Skeleton
Types of major bone
Task: Watch the following video and answer the questions
Types of major bone
Bones vary in shape and size according to their location and function. They are classified as follows:
• Long bones
• Short bones
• Flat bones
• Sesamoid bones
• Irregular bones

Long
bones:
are found in the limbs such as the femur, tibia, and fibula. They have a shaft known as the diaphysis and two expanded ends known as the epiphysis.
Short bones:
are small, light, strong, cubed shaped bones. The carpals and tarsals are of the wrists and ankles are examples of short bones.
Types of major bone
Sesamoid bones:
have a specialised function. They are usually found within a tendon such as the patella in the knee.
Irregular bones:
have complex shapes that for none of the above categories. The bones of the spine are a good example.
Flat bones:
are thin, flattened and slightly curved, and have a large surface area, examples include the scapula, sternum, and cranium.
Key terms:

Anterior: To the front or in front
Posterior: To the rear of behind
Medial: Towards the midline
Lateral: Away from the midline
Proximal: Near to the root or orgian
Distal: Away from the root or orgian
Superior: Above
Inferior: Below
Anatomical Terms
Anatomical Positions
Vertebral Column
The vertebrea can be classified as:
Cervical vertebrea (in the neck)
Thoracic vertebrea (in the chest region)
Lumbar vertebrea (in the small of the back)
Sacral vertebrea (fused vertebrar that form the sacrum)
Coccygeal vertebrea (fuses vertebrae that form the coccyx)

Label the vertebrae collumn

Using the table in your books label the skeleton.
Principles of Anatomy and Physiology:
1.2 Function of the skeletal system

Learning Intentions
To know the function of the skeletal system
Function
Support: Your bones give your body shape and provide a frame work for the soft tissues of your body.
Protection: Your skeleton protects vital tissues and organs in your body e.g. cranium (brain),rib cage (lungs), vertebrae (spinal column) .
Movement: Parts of your skeleton provide a surface for your skeletal muscles to attach to, allowing you to move. Muscles pulling on bones act as leavers and movement occurs at joints so you can walk, run. jump etc.
Blood cell production: Blood vessels feed the centre of your bones and stored within them is bone marrow. Blood cell production in prevalent in long bones e.g. femur, fibula and tibula.
Store minerals: None is a reservoir for minerals such as calcium and phosphorus, essential for bone growth and the maintenance of bone health.
Joints
A joint is formed where two or more bones meet. The function of a joint is to hold bones together and allow movement.

There are three classifications of joints:

Fixed / immovable (fibrous)
Slightly movable (cartilaginous)
Freely moveable (synovial)


Joints
Fixed joints
Are also known as fibrous or immovable joints, they do not move. They interlock and overlap and are held together by bands of tough fibrous tissue e.g. the plates in your cranium.
Slightly movable
These joints allow slight movement. The ends of the bone are covered in articular or hyaline cartilage that reduces friction. Slight movement at these articulating surfaces is made possible because the pads of cartilage compress e.g. between most vertebrae.
Joints
Vertebrae Column
Cervical: the vertebrae of the neck. The first two are known as atlas (C1) and axis (C2). They form a pivot that allows the head and neck to move freely. There are 7 vertebrae in this area (C1-C7)

Thoracic: the vertebrae of the mid spine, which articulate with the ribs. The thoracic section has12 vertebrae (T1-T12).

Lumbar: the largest of the moveable vertebrae, situated in the lower back. They support more weight than other vertebrae and provide attachment for many of the muscle in the lower back. The lumber has 5 vertebrae (L1-L5).


Sacrum: Five sacral vertebrae are fused to form the sacrum, a triangular bone located below the lumber vertebrae. It forms the back wall of the pelvic girdle, sitting between tow hip bones.

Coccyx: at the bottom of the vertebral column there are four coccygeal vertebrae, which are fused to form the coccyx or tail bone.
Synovial joints / freely moveable
joints offer the highest level of mobility at a joint. These joints make up most of the joints of your limbs. They are surrounded by a
fibrous capsule
, lined with a
synovial membrane.
When movement occurs the synovial membrane secretes a fluid known as
synovial fluid
into the joint cavity to lubricate and nourish the joint. The synovial fluid acts like a buffer between articulating bones to prevent injury. The
joint capsule
is held together by though bands of connective tissue known as
ligaments
. This provides the strength to avoid dislocation, while being flexible enough to allow movement.
The characteristics of a synovial joint are:

An outer sleeve or joint capsule to help to hold the bones in place and protect the joint

A synovial membrane, secreting synovial fluid to lubricate the joint

A joint cavity - the cap between the articulating bones

Articular cartliage on the ends of the bones to provide a smooth and slippery covering to stop the bones knocking or grinding together

Ligaments to hold the bones together
Types of Synovial Joints
Hinge - Allows movement in one direction e.g. flexion/extension at the knee/elbow joint - kicking a football.



Ball and socket - The round end of one bone fits into a cup shaped socket in the other bone, allowing movement in all directions e.g. Flexion/Extension/Adduction/Abduction/Internal & External Rotatio at the hip and shoulder joint - front crawl



Condyloid - Movement is backwards and forwards and from side to side e.g. Flexion/Extension/Adduction/ Abduction/Circumduction at the wrist joint (intercarple) - dribbling in basketball
Type of Synovial Joints
Gliding - These joints allow movement over a flat surface in all directions, but this is restricted by ligaments e.g. carples and tarsals - dribbling the ball in hockey by moving the hockey stick over and back.


Pivot - A ring of one bone fits over a peg of another, allowing controlled rotational movement, such as the joint of the atlas and axis in the neck e.g when you are stretching and you turn your head side to side.


Saddle - Movement occurs backwards and forwards and from side to side, like that at the base of the thumb e.g. flexion/Extension/Adduction/Abduction/Circumduction e.g. holding a tennis racket or golf club.
Types of movement
Flexion:
reducing the angle at the joint e.g. bicep curl

Extension:
increasing the angle at a join e.g. straightening your arm to return to your starting position of the bicep curl

Abduction:
movement away from the midline of the body e.g. side step in gymnastics

Adduction
: movement towards the midline of the body e.g. pulling the oars whilst rowing

Rotation:
circular movement of the limb e.g. occurs at the shoulder joint during a serve in tennis

Pronation:
an inward rotation of the forearms so the palm of the wrist is facing backwards and downwards e.g. table tennis forehand top spin

Supination:
an outward rotation of the forearm so that the palm of the hand is facing forwards and upwards e.g. table tennis backhand top spin

Planter-flexion:
points the toes downwards by straightening the ankle e.g. jumping in gymnastics

Dorsi-flexion:
an upward movement, as in moving the foot to pull the toes towards the knee when walking

Hyper-extension:
involves movement beyond the normal anatomical position in a direction opposite to flexion. This occurs at the spine when a cricketer arches their back when approaching the crease to bowl.
Sporting example

when we start to exercise the movements of our joints means that synovial fluid starts to secrete within the joints. The fluid becomes less viscous and therefore the range of movement within the joint increases. An example of this in sport is the need for a warm up for a butterfly swimmer. So they can get the full range of movement at the shoulder joint that area has to be warmed up prior to the race.
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