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Transcript of The Thirties
Events and Developments of the Thirties
Science and Technology
Sports in the 1930s
Fads and Fashions
by Brittni, Devon, Marsha, and Olivia
The Great Depression
Overview of the Decade
1930: Gandhi leads civil disobedience campaign in India
1932: Franklin Roosevelt wins the US Presidential Election
1933: Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany
1934: Chinese Communists start "The Long March"
1936: King Edward VIII abdicates the British Throne for Wallis Simpson, leaving his brother to rule
1936: civil war in Spain
1938: Germany annexes Austria
1939: Britain and France declare war on Germany
The stock market crash of October 1929
marked the beginning of this global economic turndown.
Millions of people were left jobless and penniless.
Unemployment reached 27% at the height of the Depression and the Gross National Product dropped 40%
Banks, factories, and shops across Canada closed down.
The economic slump was a sharp contrast to the extravagance of the roaring twenties.
The Prairie provinces were hit the hardest.
On top of the falling wheat prices, nature turned on the farmers as well.
The Dust Bowl era marked a decade of unprecedented drought.
"The once lush fields dried up and the crops burned in the sun."
Thousands of people simply abandoned their farms altogether.
10th prime minister of Canada
lead a liberal gov't from 1921—1926, 1926—1930, and from 1935—1948.
He was part of the controversial King-Byng affair that helped deepen Canada's growing independence
Under his leadership, Canada fought valiantly in the Second World War
megalomaniac dictator of Nazi Germany
only American president to be reelected three times
His "New Deal" policies fought economic depression by creating employment through major public works such as
He skillfully brought himself closer to ordinary people by having "fireside chats" through the radio.
titled himself "the Führer"
in the 1930s, he crushed all opposition to his rule and transformed Germany into a powerful war machine to support his aggressive foreign policy
Hitler was incredibly charismatic, and promised to lead Germany into an era of glory.
However, he was also prejudiced and is remembered today as a merciless dictator.
Millions of Jewish, mentally-ill or disabled, and homosexual people suffered tremendously under his rule.
As general secretary of the Communist party in the 1930s, Stalin used violence and terror to push through his policies
In 1939, he signed a non-aggression pact with Adolf Hitler
he set the Soviet Union on a path of forced modernization
1931: Japan invades Manchuria
1935: Fascist Italy invades Ethiopia
"I pledge myself to a new deal for the American people... the only thing we have to fear is fear itself."
Throughout the thirties, cars acquired nearly
the features that are familar with us today
however, private motoring was still confined to the middle and upper classes
New types of steel could be pressed into more diverse shapes and car designers had greater scope and freedom
Austin Ten, 1935
multi-cylinder Cadillac, 1930
Dodge car, 1937
Morris Isis, 1930
Lincoln V-12, 1934
Electricity and Daily Life
Electrical power became widely available, transforming industry, entertainment and the home.
Charles Parsons' steam turbine had provided the world with vast quantities of electrical power
for many industry processes, such as driving machines and making tools for railways, cranes, lifts, collieries, and rolling mills
At this time, 40% of the population of Britain and America went to the cinema every week
The cinema was a place of refuge, where people could escape to a world of song and dance, comedy, and adventure
Music and Dance
Top Songs of the Thirties
13 750 000
American households had radios
• Film, Actress, Diplomat
• Born on April 23 1928 in Santa Monica, California
• Leading child film actress from to great depression
• Starred in works like Bright eyes, and Captain Journey.
• Became a U.S. diplomat for the U.N
• Singer, Actress
• Born on June 10 1922 in Grand Rapid Minnesota
• Signed a contract with MGM at the age of 13
• Scored one of her greatest on screen successes with The Wizard of Oz in 1939
• First public performance was at the age of 2, singing Jingle Bells
• Born on May 10, 1899 in Omaha, Nebraska
• Well known for being a perfectionist and his endless hours of practice
• Remembered for his pairings with Ginger Rogers
• landed a small role in 1933's Dancing Lady with Joan Crawford
• Actress, Producer, Screenwriter
• Born on April 8 1892 in Toronto
• Known as America’s Sweetheart
• Appeared in 40 movies in 1909 for D.W. Griffiths
• Worked as a producer on films like One Rainy Afternoon
Canadian-American bandleader and violinist.
Born on June 19, 1902 in London, Ontario
Formed "The Royal Canadians" with his brothers
has three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Biggest Movie Releases of the Thirties
1. The Wizard of Oz (1939)
2. Gone With The Wind (1939)
3. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937)
4. The Adventures of Robin Hood (1938)
5. City Lights (1931)
1. Strange Fruit – Billie Holiday
2. Crossroad Blues – Robert Johnson
3. Over the Rainbow – Judy Garland
4. In the Mood – Glen Miller
5. Hellhound on my trail – Robert Johnson
Popular Dances: The Jitterbug, The Jive, and The Lindy
The 1936 Berlin Olympics was the biggest sporting event during the 1930s.
The poster for Berlin 1936
The logo for Berlin 1936
Berlin 1936 marked the debuts of basketball, canoeing and field handball in the Olympics!
The Gols Medal of the 1936 Berlin Olympics
Berlin 1936 began on August 1st and ended on August 16th
Official opening of the Games by: Adolf Hitler
Lighting the Olympic Flame by: Fritz Schilgen
Olympic Oath by: Rudolf Ismayr
Jesse Owens wins 4 gold medals
First time the Olympics were on TV
The first time the torch relay was introduced
14 year old, Marjorie Gestring wins a gold medal in springboard diving
13 year old, Inge Sorensen wins a bronze medal in the 200m breaststroke, making her the youngest medallist ever in any individual event.
Some Highlights of Berlin 1936
Jesse Owen won four gold medals in Berlin 1936 in the 100m, 200m, 4x100m relay and long jump.
Hockey in the 1930s.
1929-30 Montreal Canadiens
1930-31 Montreal Canadiens
1931-32 Toronto Maple Leafs
1932-33 New York Rangers
1933-34 Chicago Blackhawks
1934-35 Montreal Maroons
1935-36 Detroit Red Wings
1936-37 Detroit Red Wings
1937-38 Chicago Blackhawks
1938-39 Boston Bruins
1939-40 New York Rangers
Stanley Cup Champions in the 1930s
this number doubled by 1939!
popular radio programs included
Lombardo led his band to international success, selling more than 100 million phonograph records in his career
The Thirties saw the establishment of commerical air routes throughout the world
In 1930, Amy Johnson became the first woman to fly solo from England to Australia in 17 days
aviation captured the imagination of millions!
Arguably, one of the best tennis players Britain has ever had
Notable Hockey Players in 1930
Eddie Shore was arguably the best hockey player during the 1930s.
NHL's MVP in 1932–33, 1934–35, 1935–36, 1937–38.
7 All Star Team Nominations from 1930-1940.
Soccer in the 1930s
World Cup Champions
1930- Winner: Uruguay Runner Up-Argentina Host-Uruguay
1934- Winner: Italy Runner Up- Czechoslovakia Host-Italy
1938- Winner: Italy Runner Up- Hungary Host-France
1937 Manchester City
Notable Basketball Facts in the 1930s
Baseball in the 1930s
The National Basketball League was formed from 13 professional teams in 1938.
Women’s basketball became really popular in the 1930s.
In 1936, the jump ball at center court was eliminated after every single basket.
The jump shot was created in 1931.
Basketball jerseys were first made
The Best Tennis Player in the 1930s
The 1930's were known as a Golden Age for football, many believed that due to the Depression
The Best Baseball Player during the 1930s
7× All-Star (1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939)
6× World Series champion (1927, 1928, 1932, 1936, 1937, 1938)
2× AL MVP (1927, 1936)
Triple Crown (1934)
AL batting champion (1934)
3× AL home run champion (1931, 1934, 1936)
Hit four home runs in one game on June 3, 1932
Australian Open W (1934)
French Open W (1935)
Wimbledon W (1934, 1935, 1936)
US Open W (1933, 1934, 1936)
US Pro W (1938, 1941)
Wembley Pro QF (1951, 1952)
Popular swing dance of the 1930's
Also known as Lindy Hop and East Coast swing
The term Jitterbug came from an early 20th-century slang for alcoholics who suffered from the "jitters"
a dance in 4/4 time
originated from African-Americans in the United states
a lively variation of the Jitterbug
one of the many forms of swing dance
but Hitler soon broke the pact, and the USSR fought the rest of WWII on the side of the Allies
Although the 1930s was a time of great hardship, people still found ways to have fun. For many during these years, having fun didn't have to cost much.
With growth of cinema as an emerging art form, women’s ideas of fashion found new inspiration.
Improvements in beauty products (partially as a result of the film industry in Hollywood), resulted in the major availabilities of cosmetics including perfumes & nail varnishes (nail polish)
Some books that were popular in the 30’s
The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck
Gone With the Wind by Margaret Mitchell
To Have and Have Not by Earnest Hemingway
Northwest Passage by Kenneth Robert
Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck
Dr Seuss books
At home, women were encouraged to buy British
A growth in the numbers of working and middle class women earning a living saw a rise in mass manufactured ready-to-wear lines often sold at department stores
Growth in home dress making as more and more patterns became available
Toys & Games
ENTERTAINMENT IN THE 1930s
Entertainment in the 1930s had a huge significance. With the economic depression, more and more people needed a way t to temporarily forget their financial problems. People would go to the movies, listen to music or the radio, or even dance just for those 1 or 2 hours of feeling problem free.
Stuffed Bears with movable limbs
In 1938 American physicist Chester F. Carlson made the first photocopy by an electrostatic process called xerography
Other Scientific Advances
In 1937 Chicago's Cook County Hospital opened the first blood bank that stored blood given by live donors
Everything was homemade: the food, the games, the music
There were even homemade portable dance floors!
The Depression saw decline in the Haute Couture business because clientele were unable to buy as many dresses as they could before
Nylon, a synthetic polymer fiber, was discovered in 1930
in 1939 the first pair of nylon stockings went on sale for $1.15 a pair
Wall Street Crash in 1929 lead into the Great Depression, which affected all aspects of life including fashion and bringing a period of austerity
the 30s saw a general maturity in attitudes and fashion after the “roaring Twenties”
Androgynous look worn by women in 20’s: →
short cropped hair, flattened boyish silhouette
Hair was grown long again and worn swept up as the decade moved on
Men wore jackets and hats outside the house
Women's clothes were tailored and close-fitting
Practical inventions like zippers and elastic replaced tapes and hooks-and- eyes
Industrial research led to better refrigeration for foods
A variety of products were made from synthetic materials such as Plexiglas, nylon, and cellophane
improved manufacturing techniques such as polymerization increased production of gasoline by 9 million gallons a year
The chocolate chip cookie was also invented in this decade!
Medical advances in the thirties included a new and safer way to do blood transfusions, an advance that was to save many soldier's lives in the upcoming war
In 1937 people began to use insulin to control diabetes
In 1931 marked the first clinical use of Penicillin
improved anesthesia made the chances of surviving major surgery on vital organs much greater