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Marzano's Classroom Assessment and Grading That Work
Transcript of Marzano's Classroom Assessment and Grading That Work
That Work About Dr. Robert Marzano Education
PhD Curriculum and Instruction, U of Washinton (Seattle) 1974
MEd Reading/LA, Seattle U 1971
BA English, Iona College (New York) 1968 Resume
2008-present Cofounder and CEO, Marzano Research Laboratory
2001-2008 President, Marzano & Associates/Senior Scholar, McREL/Associate Professor, Cardinal Stritch University
1998-2001 Senior Fellow, McREL
1994-1998 Vice President, McREL Institute
1989-1994 Deputy Director of Training and Development, McREL
1984-1989 Director of Research, McREL
1979-1981Associate Professor, University of Colorado Denver
1974-1977 Assistant Professor (reading, language arts, research methodology) University of Colorado Denver
1972-1974 Triple T Project Participant, University of Washington (Seattle)
1969-1971 English Department Chairman, O'Dea High School, Seattle, Washington
1967-1968 English Teacher, New York Public Schools Chapter 1
The Case for Classroom Assessment
Q: How can we increase student achievement?
A: Increase teacher skill in assessment.
Cofounder and CEO of Marzano Research Laboratory
Author of over 30 books and 150 articles From the course objectives:
Recognize the pervasiveness of an educational philosophy in determining one’s views of reality, in analyzing what knowledge is valued, and in making curricular decisions.
Understand a myriad of issues, trends and practices that impact curriculum development, implementation, and evaluation Chapter 2: State Standards? Too Much Content:
US Mathematics textbooks attempt to cover 175% as many topics as German books and 350% as much as Japanese. US Science cover 9x as many topics as German and 4x as much as Japanese. Yet, German and Japanese students consistently outperform US students.
NCTM Standards contains 241 benchmarks/traits. Yet unpacked it covers 741 unique traits.
So much content that teachers need 71% more instruction time to cover all content in standards. or increase schooling to grade 21 or 22.
Lack of Undimensionality: most benchmarks test more than 1 dimension or trait, but don’t break down to who scores on what...
Dimension A Dimension B Total Score
Student 1 2 10 12
Student 2 10 2 12
Student 3 6 6 12 Marzano gives two areas for assessment skill improvement for teachers:
1.Give students a clear picture or progress.
2. Tell students how to improve. How to break down the content??
Step 1: Unpack the Benchmarks in Standards
Step 2: Identify the Dimension(trait) that are Essential for All Students to Learn
Step 3: Organize the Dimensions(trait) into Categories of Related Information and Skill (Vertical alignment) Comprehensive System of Measurement Topics:
* Limit Measurement to 20 or fewer per subject area and grade level
* Include Measurement Topics of Life Skills (Participation, work completion, behavior, working in groups)
* Change Structure of Measurement Topics at High School Level (Internationally competitive academic standards)
* Allow for a Teacher-Choice Measurement Topic (Integrate individual skills of masters) Is your feedback positive to students (encouraging) or negative (discouraging)?
Ways to encourage effort:
Don’t grade everything. They don’t keep track of their assignments like you think they do.
Encourage efforts shown: say “good job” or comment in class something really positive for all of them at one point or another. Surprises them. Keeps them on their toes.
Don’t be negative in wording of criticism: begin with something positive and make the negative be a constructive point/criticism.
Offer suggestions for improvement, not saying everything that is wrong.
Offer constructive feedback Chapter 4: Designing Classroom Assessments 3 types of Assessment:
Information (subject matter knowledge)
Mental procedures (procedural knowledge)
Psychomotor procedures (physical activities for work or fun) Assessment items and tasks:
Type I - basic details and skills (recognize and recall)
Type II - more complex ideas and processes(generalize and predict)
Type III - apply (inferences) Chapter 3
A Scale that Measures Learning Over Time
Point System vs. Item Response Theory
Points/Percentages began at the time of WWI recruiting soldiers. This is still the type of grading system we use today. This type of system is failing due to teacher judgment and teachers weighting grades differently.
Item Response Theory is more appropriate according to Marzano because teachers translate student response patterns into scores on a scale that represents progression of understanding and skill for a given topic.
Assessment item formats
1. Forced-choice - fill in the blank, multiple choice, true/false, matching
2. Short written - short answer
3. Essays - reaction to a given prompt or idea
4. Oral responses and Oral reports
5. Demonstrations and Performances Chapter 5: Assessments that Encourage Learning Is your assessment Formative or Summative:
Summative: occurs at the end of a learning episode
Formative: all activities that students provide information that is used to modify the teaching and learning activities; it forms the class/content; can impact a student earlier, before it’s too late
Do you assess often?
More assessments equals more percentage gain. 3 Techniques
* Tracking Students’ Progress
* Encouraging Self-Reflection
* Focus on Learning at the End of the Grading Period Tracking Student Progress
o students track it (figure 5.1 pg 90)
o teacher tracks classes (figure 5.2 pg 91)
o Measure only 1 topic per chart Encouraging Self-Reflection
o self-assessment (sample figure 5.3 pg 93)
+ contrast with teacher’s assessment
o self-reflect by articulating perceptions regarding learning
+ “one minute paper”
+ describe “muddiest point”
+ “diagnostic learning log”
# 4 questions pg 94
# tabulated by teacher and id patterns Chapter 6: Final Scores and Grades
Assessments should be 3 to 5 per grading period, or enough to see a “true score”.
They should be spaced out evenly.
Zeros should not be given for failing to do work or not making up a test-those are life skills. Formative Assessments should include 3 characteristics:
1. Multiple Measurements topics and easy entry of scores.
2. Accurate representation of scores at the end of the grading period (avg score and power law score).
3. Graphs and tables of students scores (shows growth and easy to discuss issues). Critique
Dr. Marzano is recognized expert in the field of educational research and this book was a shining example of this. It is chocked full of tons of data and data analysis. It also points out some blaring inconsistencies with the American education system’s current system of grading.
1. He discusses the idea of entire school systems changing their grading habits (p.132-136). This is excellent in theory; however, with the current lack of resources due to major budget cuts, this does not seem to be currently feasible.
2. Many of his tactics in this book would mean a major overhaul for teachers’ materials, assessments, and planning. It’s very true that a teacher should change their teaching to match the needs of their students, however, the amount of work that he is requiring seems daunting and overwhelming at first glance. It could be accomplished overtime, especially with the use of Professional Learning Communities in schools. Here is an interesting article about a school system in MI that implemented these ideas this year. The parents are not happy.
http://www.mlive.com/news/bay-city/index.ssf/2010/11/qa_standards-based_grading_exp.html Good Ideas:
1. It’s very interesting how he has set up report cards to include specific goals and objectives (p. 127-130). Unfortunately, we, as teachers, do not have control over how our districts publish them.
2.He also makes a very good point when he talks about trying to teach too many standards during the school year (p.13-16). Many states have signed onto the new Common Core Standards that cuts back on how many standards and objectives are taught during the school year. Lengthening the school year has also been a hot topic of debate as of late. Once again, budget cuts make this idea practically impossible. Overall, Marzno has some interesting points, and we believe that the book is worth the read. Chapter 7
Report Cards and the Future of Standards-Based or Topic Based Schooling
Grades for reports cards should consist of a letter grade and scores for measurement topics
Teachers will have to grade the same way in order to base grades on measurement topics.
In order for this type of grading to occur, it will have to be phased in slowly. An example of a school implementing reformed report cards: http://www.dispatch.com/live/content/local_news/stories/2010/09/19/schools-rethink-grading-policies.html THE END