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21st century problems

eric ernest

on 10 September 2016

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Ready-To-Eat Foods & Bare Hand Contact
Foodborne Illness
People can get sick if the food they eat has harmful chemicals or microorganisms.
This is called foodborne illness. Most foodborne illnesses are caused by microorganisms that grow in food or inside of our bodies. Symptoms can include diarrhea, vomiting, fever, headache, and stomach ache. These symptoms might be noticed several hours to several weeks after eating the food.


Sanitation & Food Safety Review
Hazards In Food
Clean hands are the most important food safety tool; but just because your hands look clean, it does not mean they don’t have microorganisms on them.

Hand washing gets rid of the microorganisms on hands that can make people sick.
Sanitation Concepts
Protecting our brand
Food Quality
Our largest opportunities
USC Hospitality Summer Summit
Temperature Control
Hot Holding (140°F or hotter)
Preparing or serving food in unsanitary conditions will adversely affect the food quality and taste.

Once quality starts to slip, food poisoning isn’t far behind.
Most food related illnesses are the result of unsanitary food handling practices.

We have a daily responsibility to adhere to our food safety policy.
The simplest argument for maintaining a safe and sanitary kitchen is because you are legally required to do so.

Health inspectors inspect restaurants every six months or so just to make sure you are following local safety regulations.

Susceptible Populations
Potentially Hazardous Foods
To keep your food safe from bacteria:
keep potentially hazardous foods out of the Danger Zone (41°F-135°F)
wash your hands after using the restroom
use gloves or utensils to prevent bare hand contact when handling ready-to-eat foods
wash, rinse, and sanitize all equipment used for food preparation
Food Safety Defenses
Proper temperatures are required for the safety of potentially hazardous foods. A thermometer should be used to make sure that food is cooked, cooled, delivered, and stored at the correct temperature.

Because cooking does not kill all microorganisms, potentially hazardous food must be held outside of the danger zone.

Use a thermometer to check the temperature of the food often. Tips for keeping food hot:
cover pans
stir food often to distribute heat
never mix cold foods with hot foods
use equipment temp logs daily
Proper sanitation leads to increased guest satisfaction and builds trust with our patrons.

It is also an essential part in supporting life on campus and creating the best USC Experience.
Younger than 5 years old
Older than 65 years old
Immune-compromised (due to illnesses such as cancer, medications, or other conditions)

Food handlers must use utensils such as tongs, scoops, deli papers, or single-use gloves to keep from touching ready-to-eat foods.
Most bacteria do not grow in hot or cold temperatures. To keep food safe, cold foods must be kept at 40°F or colder and hot foods must be kept at 140°F or hotter. When potentially hazardous foods are left in the Danger Zone, bacteria can grow quickly and can make people sick.
The goal of food safety is to prevent the hazards that cause foodborne illness or injury.

Most of the hazards in food are things you cannot see, smell, or taste.

A foodborne hazard is a physical, chemical, or biological object in food or drink that can cause injury or illness.
Physical hazards are objects in food that may cause injury if eaten. Physical hazards usually happen because of unsafe food handling practices or accidental contamination.

Chemicals may cause foodborne illness if they get into food.
To keep your food safe from chemicals:
-store all chemicals away from food and work surfaces label all chemicals
-only use approved containers to store food
-make sure food is protected when you clean the kitchen
Biological Contamination

Parasites in food are usually tiny worms that live in fish, pork, or meat. They can be killed if frozen for a specific time or cooked to the right temperatures.

Although viruses are small, it only takes a few to make you sick. Unlike parasites, viruses are not destroyed by freezing. We’ve all had an illness from a virus. Chicken pox, the common cold, and influenza are all caused by viruses spread from people coughing or sneezing. The viruses that we get through food usually come from the unclean hands of someone that touched our food.

Unlike viruses, bacteria can grow in food. They are found everywhere and can grow when food workers are not careful about time, temperature, and cleanliness. Bacteria can spoil food or cause foodborne illness. Bacteria that cause foodborne illness come from sources like soil, animals, raw meat, and people. Although they can come from lots of places, these bacteria usually only grow in certain foods.

These foods are called potentially hazardous foods.
Potentially Hazardous Foods Include:
Animal Products-
meat, fish, poultry, seafood, eggs
dairy products
Cooked Starches-
cooked rice, beans, pasta, potatoes
Fruits and Vegetables-
cooked vegetables
sprouts (such as alfalfa or bean sprouts)
cut melons
garlic or herbs in oil
Preventing Illness
Now that you know microorganisms cause almost all foodborne illnesses, let’s talk about what you can do to prevent foodborne illness.

Because people cannot usually see, smell, or taste microorganisms in food, it is important to practice food safety even when the food looks fine.
Our most important food safety controls are:
personal hygiene
temperature control
preventing cross contamination
adequate cooking temperatures
When to Wash:
Food workers are required to wash their hands before they begin food preparation and any time hands may be contaminated, such as:

after using the restroom
after handling raw meat, fish, or poultry
after handling garbage or dirty dishes
after taking a break, eating, drinking or smoking
after sneezing, coughing, or blowing the nose
after using chemicals
after handling money or a cash register

Even when food workers wash their hands well, we must be careful when handling ready-to- eat foods with their bare hands.
Ready-to-eat foods include:
produce that is eaten raw such as sliced fruit and salads
bakery or bread items such as cookies, breads, cakes, and pies
foods that have already been cooked such as pizza and hamburgers
foods that will not be cooked such as cheese and snack mixes
Important Rules for Using Gloves:
1. wash hands before putting on or changing gloves 2. change gloves that get ripped
3. change gloves that might be contaminated
4. change gloves while working w/ different foods
5. throw gloves away after use
6. never wash or reuse gloves
Time is ticking... By the time you begin to prepare it, food has been through a lot of steps.

It has been grown, shipped, purchased, received, and stored before you begin preparation.

You may thaw, mix, cook, cool, serve, or reheat it.

All of the time that the food spends in these steps adds up and helps bacteria grow to dangerous numbers.

Work with food quickly to keep it out of the Danger Zone. When you are preparing food, only prepare a manageable amount of the food at a time. Keep the rest of the food hot or cold until you’re ready to prepare it.

Ice bathes help maintain temps during prep.
Keep Hot Foods Hot, Keep Cold Foods Cold
Cold Holding
Remember, bacteria grow quickly when food is left in the Danger Zone.

Keep cold food cold in a cooler or on ice, or some other approved method to keep bacteria from growing.

When using ice to keep food cold, the ice must surround the container to the top level of the food.

Prepped foods MUST be cooled to below 41 degrees prior to storing.
Frozen foods must be thawed safely to keep bacteria from growing.

There are three safe methods for thawing food:
1. in the refrigerator (put frozen food in the refrigerator until it is thawed)
2. submerged under cold running water (place the food in cool, running water until it is thawed)
3. as part of the cooking process
Because bacteria can grow quickly in warm food, cooling is often the riskiest step in food preparation. It is important to cool food through the Danger Zone as fast as possible to keep bacteria from growing.

Food must cooled from 140°F to 70°F in 2 hours.

Then from 70°F to 41°F or lower in 4 hours- adding up to a total of 6 hours.

This is called the Two- Step Cooling Process.
Suggested cooling methods include:

using shallow pans (it is recommended that the food be uncovered and no more than 2 inches deep)
cutting large portions of food into smaller portions (food be uncovered and no more than 4 inches thick)
using ice as an ingredient or stirring food with an ice wand
submerging pans and containers with product in ice-bathes
Prevent Cross Contamination
Cross contamination is the spread of bacteria and other microorganisms from one surface to another.

Cross contamination happens in a food establishment when harmful bacteria and other microorganisms from raw foods get onto other foods.

When blood or juices from raw meats get onto a counter, cutting board, utensils, or hands, bacteria can spread to other food. It is important to keep raw meat away from other food.
Tips to avoid cross contamination:
wash hands after handling raw proteins
wash and sanitize all food-contact surfaces that touch raw proteins
prepare raw proteins in an area away from other foods
use a separate cutting board for raw proteins
store raw proteins below other foods in the refrigerator and freezer
store proteins with a higher cooking temperature (like chicken) below proteins with lower cooking temperatures (like fish)
Cleaning and Sanitizing
Cleaning uses soap and water to remove dirt and particles from surfaces. Sanitizing uses chemicals or heat to reduce the amount of harmful microorganisms to a safe level.
It is important to remember that an item may look clean, but harmful microorganisms may still be present. Food-contact surfaces should be washed, rinsed, and sanitized after each use. Other areas in the food establishment such as floors and walls should also be kept clean.
A Few Notes
Wiping Cloths

Wet wiping cloths can be used to sanitize work surfaces that have been rinsed.

Tips for using wiping cloths:
store wiping cloths in clean sanitizer
use a different wiping cloth for cleaning up after preparing raw meat
use different wiping cloths for food and non food contact areas
clean and rinse dirty wiping cloths before putting them back into the sanitizer
Receiving Food
Packaged, frozen or canned foods must be returned or thrown away if they are opened, rusty, or severely damaged. Potentially hazardous food should be received at 41°F or cooler. Do not accept food delivered at an unsafe temperature or in an unsafe condition.
Pest Control
Pests like rodents, cockroaches, and flies must be kept out of food areas because they may spread germs.

To keep pests out of food establishments:
keep doors closed or screened and cover holes in walls
clean garbage cans regularly
throw away used boxes
keep food covered and clean all spills quickly

Habits That Matter Most

Some habits have the power to start a chain reaction, changing other habits as they move through an organization. Some habits, in other words, matter more than others in remaking businesses and lives. These are Keystone Habits, and they can influence how people work, eat, play, live, spend, and communicate.

Keystone habits start a process that, over time, transforms everything.

Keystone habits say that success doesn’t depend on getting every single thing right, but instead relies on identifying a few key priorities and fashioning them into powerful levels.
Small Wins

“Small wins fuel transformative changes by leveraging tiny advantages into patterns that convince people that bigger achievements are within reach”

How can we start with small wins?
Creating Belief and Conviction

“Once people learned how to believe in something, that skill started spilling over to other parts of their lives, until they started believing they could change. Belief was the ingredient that made a reworked habit loop into a permanent behavior”
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