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Horror in 'Macbeth' and the stories of Edgar Allan Poe

Scheme of Work for the Literature Coursework in the AQA iGCSE
by

craig ennew

on 12 May 2015

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Transcript of Horror in 'Macbeth' and the stories of Edgar Allan Poe

How is a sense of terror conveyed in Shakespeare's
Macbeth
and the short stories of Edgar Allan Poe

Macbeth
Assessment
Poe Short Stories
Lessons
Detail 4
The Black Cat
The Story (PDFs)
Resources
Background resources
The Tell-Tale Heart
The Story
Resources
The Story
Resources
The Cask of
Amontillado
The Story
Resources
The Premature Burial
Overview of Act One - copy
Watch the first act
Checking Understanding - notes
Act One
ACT ONE

TASK: 2 double lessons
In 4 groups of 6, establish HOW Shakespeare
structures Act One in a way that
builds
a
sense of oncoming terror in.
sequence of events
imagery
dramatic devices
audience response then and now
discuss > plan > write > present> notes
ACT TWO
CLASS READING OF FIRST POE STORY
Initial Impressions of Macbeth
three PEA chains: 'the first impression we have of Macbeth is... where he is described by x as ... the use of the word y creates the impression of...' etc.
Irony: Macbeth and the traitors
How the idea of treachery and traitors are included in the act; how this might be ironic, given Macbeth's developing thoughts...

Back up ideas with reference to the text
The predictions of the witches
What do they predict for Macbeth and Banquo?
What might these predictions mean?
How are the witches presented?
Lady Macbeth's Reactions
First impressions of her
How she responds to the letter
How she convinces Macbeth to 'proceed' with 'the business' ...
Back up with
quotations!
Watching Act whilst following scripts
Pairs: Differences between stage and page
Looking back
Conveying
HORROR
in Act 2
Through structure - order / length of scenes
Through imagery and language
Through characters' reactions
OVERVIEW
i Last chances
ii'The Deed'
iii 'Horror!'
iv Dismal reflections
sequence of events
relative lengths of scenes
interruptions to narrative
how quick / slow 'pace' is created (line lengths, etc)
how events in act overall contribute to plot
select 4/5 key passages
analyse in terms of choices of words and images that relate to horror
look for patterns / recurring themes / references to violence
comment on their significance and effect on the audience
take each main characfter in turn and analyse their reactions at various points in the act
think about how reliable / truthful these are - genuine or false
consider HOW they contribute to the overall horror of the situation
consider as well how an audience in Shakespeare's time might react to this...
In groups of 3: each take responsbility for one of the bullet points. Make detailed notes with supporting quotations, and be prepared to share with the other two...
ACT THREE
OVERVIEW: 'Scorch'd the snake...not killed it'

'Fears in Banquo'
Marital dischord?
'Let it come down'
The banquet
5/6 Further developments...
watching the act
drawing connections and developments with previous events
developing FORM and STRUCTURE points
Language & Imagery: what is worthy of note?
List FOUR key 'horrific' moments in this act and show how they connect back to events in previous acts
List THREE similarities between events in this act and previous events. List subtle differences between them too.
Connections
Developments
In what ways is Macbeth changing and developing in his role as ruthless tyrant?
In what ways are his relationships with others (Lady M, the other lords, etc.) changing or developing also?
Definition: genre, type
. 'Macbeth' is a drama and a tragedy. What dramatic techniques are used to enhance the horror in the act; how do events in the act contribute to the overall sense of tragedy?
Definition: sequence or order of events.
How does this act fit into the previous sequence of events? How does the time-frame work?
Find FIVE examples of where specific LANGUAGE techniques (eg assonance, alliteration, harsh sounds, sibilance, choices of verbs, adjectives etc) exaggerate or enhance the overall sense of horror in the act.
Each example should use a different technique; each should also come with an analysis...
Use the following words to pick out key imagery from the act, giving examples and commenting on the examples:


animals
violence
religious
children
can you think of many more?
Group Work:

You will work within one of the following SIX groups. You will find out as much as you can in that area, before reporting back to your table...
Group 1: Connections and developments
Group 2: Form
Group 3: Structure
Group 4: Language
Group 5: Imagery
WORKSHEETS
I
II
III
IV
V
Act IV
Overview:

The return to the witches
Macduff's family
A test of loyalty
Activity:

Re-read Act IV Sc2. What elements of the scene might the audience consider horrific?

- There have already been a number of references to the murder of or violence towards children in the play. List these, providing an illustrating quotation for each.

EXTENSION: How might these be linked to the murder of innocence? Find references to this in the section of the play that we have studied also.
Context:
their prominence in the play
Hecate: written by Shakespeare?
how much are they to blame for Macbeth's actions?
Homework:

Act 5!
What do you anticipate to be the DRAMATIC CLIMAX of the play in Act V? Who will be involved? Where will it be set? Describe your imagined moment in about 20 words
What 'bloody business' is there to resolve in the final act? List four or five 'loose ends' that need to be tied up by the close of the play..
.
Act V
1. Out damned spot!
2. March towards Birnham
3. The doctor
4-6 The advance
7 Enter Macduff
8 Confrontation
9 Hail, King of Scotland
Inferences:


DEFINITION
in·fer
[in-fur]
verb
(used with object), in·ferred, in·fer·ring.
1. to derive by reasoning; conclude or judge from premises or evidence: They inferred his displeasure from his cool tone of voice.
2. (of facts, circumstances, statements, etc.) to indicate or involve as a conclusion; lead to.
3. to guess; speculate; surmise.
4. to hint; imply; suggest.
HORROR & TENSION in the final scenes...
the increasing isolation of Macbeth
the growing sense of personal horror and the realisation of his final fate
the structure of the final scenes - quick succession of entrances and exits, and the build towards a climax
the way in which the climax of the play - and its resolution - is handled in terms of dramatic form, language and imagery...
imagery
&
language
structure
dramatic form
&
language
Lesson idea: In small groups, take one of the bullet points and write down FIVE conceptualised statement about it. Swap statements with another group. Find textual support for the other groups points; write the statement and quotations into your notes. You can write an ANALYSIS for each of these fo homework.
Now it’s time to go it alone!

The extract:
-extract title -
Your questions:
1:
2:
3:
4:

TASK: Your TYPE ‘X’ question:

Why do you think Montresor holds such a grudge against Fortunato in the story? What evidence does Poe give us that his hatred is justified?
X: ‘What / Why do you think?’

STRUCTURING YOUR ANSWER in P-E-A chains

State your opinion


Back it up with an example from the text


Comment on the effectiveness of the example



X: ‘What / Why do you think?’

X: ‘What / Why do you think?’

Previous ‘Type X’ questions have asked…
Whether you go along with the writer’s view
Why a passage might be worthy of being in a collection
What you think of the qualities of the writer
What the writing reveals about attitudes of the time

B:‘How does the writer…?’

2nd EXAMPLE of ‘TYPE B’ question
(one structure point and three language points )

B:‘How does the writer create tension and intrigue in this extract?’

EXAMPLE ‘TYPE B’ question
- purpose
- tone
- language
- structure

B:‘How does the writer…?’

Low marks for answers which identify literal detail

Medium marks for answers which use literal detail to develop some relevant comment, possibly on effect

High marks for answers which focus on writer’s methods. Responses must focus on the exact terms of the question.

B:‘How does the writer…?’

4 ways we can write about techniques:
- purpose
- tone
- language
- structure

B: ‘How does the writer…?’

From the mark scheme:
the best answer ‘fully addresses the HOW in the question’
i.e. explains about a writer’s techniques

Q: What have you learned about the character of Fortunato in this extract?

TASK: Produce three separate answers:
low mark answer
mid mark answer
high mark answer

A: ‘What have you learned about…?’

Your FIRST question…

A: ‘What have you learned about…?’

TASK: With your chosen paragraph, make lists under two columns:
‘factual details’, and ‘inferred details’

THE TEXT WE ARE WORKING ON IS…

A: ‘What have you learned about…?’

SO…what does inferred mean?

verb (infers, inferring, inferred)
[with object]deduce or conclude (something) from evidence and reasoning rather than from explicit statements: [with clause]:from these facts we can infer that crime has been increasing
From: Oxford Dictionary online

A: ‘What have you learned about…?’

How this looks in a typical mark scheme:

0 marks: nothing relevant

Weak answer: offers simple comment and literal detail

Medium mark answer: offer supported comment which focuses on behaviour.

High mark answer: offers developed,
inferential
comment



The Type 'A' Question: ‘What have you learned about…?’

What the examiners say:

‘weakest responses offer a few literal details… better responses commented on a range of details…
best responses inferred meaning.’

A question of timing…

Question Types

The order and wording can vary, but there are FOUR main question types:
A: ‘What have you learned about…?’
B: ‘How does the writer…?’
C: ‘What evidence / In what ways …?’
X: ‘What / why do you think...?’

What you are showing you can do in this paper!

1. Read and understand texts, selecting material appropriate to purpose, collating from different sources, and making and explaining connections across texts as appropriate.
2. Develop and sustain interpretations of writers’ ideas and perspectives.
3. Explain and evaluate how writers use linguistic, grammatical, structural and presentational features to achieve effects and engage and influence the reader.


So…

What is
‘literary non-fiction’?

?

!

X: ‘What / Why do you think?’

That tricky last question…
‘TYPE X’

B:‘How does the writer…?’

Checklist: Does your answer…

Set points out clearly and coherently?
Refer to purpose, tone, language and structure?
Mention specific word types or techniques (eg ‘verbs’ ‘irony’ ‘metaphor’)
Use blended quotations within your text
Use smooth linking words and phrases between each main point, such as ‘In addition…’



QUESTION TYPE 'B':‘HOW does the writer convey ‘x’ in this passage?’

Where ‘x’ is usually something quite specific, such as:
- a concept eg ‘beauty’
- a theme eg ‘conflict’
- a specific relationship
- a specific character
- a specific place
etc

Practising
Literary Non-Fiction Type
Questions using 'A Cask of Amontillado'

AQA iGCSE English Language

Read from the start of the story to the line 'There were no attendants at home.'

Q: What have you learned about the character of Fortunato in this extract?
NB: In the Year 10 exam, there are THREE questions: Type 'A', Type 'B' and Type 'X'
Read the story!
For discussion
:
- What questions remain unanswered?
- How does the narrator come across?
- How does Poe use irony throughout? Find some examples...
1 min: glance at text to establish subject;
read through ques / underline key terms
10 mins: read text properly, bearing qus in mind
15 mins for each qu: annotating, then answering in 3-4 P-E-A chains for each
Much of what we can perceive of Forunato's character, we learn through Montresor, who cannot always be considered a reliable narrator. What is certain is that Fortunato has done something to 'insult' Montresor, despite being unaware of such:

'...he did not perceive...'

We also know that Fortunato enjoys drinking and partying in the 'supreme madness' of the carnival season; for which he is dressed in 'conical cap' and 'parti-striped dress'. He also has a 'severe cold' during this time.

In terms of personality, he appears eager - 'come, let us go!' but skeptical regarding the claims of Montresor, saying it is 'impossible' that the pipe exists.
you DEFINITELY need
to focus on these two!
Extract: From 'No attendants at home' to 'above the elbow...'
Some ideas:
-short bursts of speech (L)
-repetition within speech (L)
-symbolic 'descent' (S)
-increasing sense of F's weakness (S)
-irony (L)
-repetition of other elements (S)
How is the changing nature of the relationship presented by Poe in this passage?
Coursework: Bringing the Texts Together
Homework:

Pick a third Poe story that you will be able to bring into your coursework. Bear in mind that:
it will need to have elements of terror / horror in it
there need to be connections with the other texts
it should be of a managable length
You should also be prepared to do a little background research on your texts and perhaps find out what other readers have made of it in the past.
YOUR COURSEWORK TASK:
How is a sense of terror conveyed in Shakespeare's Macbeth and the short stories of Edgar Allan Poe?
Brainstorming connecting ideas....

Your teacher will issue prompt cards to get you discussing and brainstornming relevant ideas in group...
TYPES OF HORROR
VISUAL
PSYCHOLOGICAL
G THIC
WE CAN SYMPATHISE
WITH THE MAIN CHARACTER
Agree?
HORROR
INTERNAL
?
EXTERNAL
STRUCTURE
A
B
C
FOR A WHILE WE ARE
FORCED TO SIDE WITH EVIL
agree / disagree ?
Who
is protagonist ?
is antagonist ?
PROSE
POETRY
DRAMA
SHORT STORY
SIGNIFICANCE?
Planning Sheet: 4 or 5 conceptualised points
What do we mean by a 'conceptualised point'?
one that compares the texts in an original, imaginative but relevant way
e.g. Examining how each texts explores ideas about physical violence to create a sense of terror
how they do
examples
analysis with
comment on
language
title
Conclusion:
conceptualised
point
Language/
Structure/
Context?
relevant quotations / areas of text
Examining how each texts explores ideas about physical violence to create a sense of terror
Shakespeare often uses language effects and technique to bring out the horror of this
Poe is often blunt and matter-of-fact when describing physical violence
examples: Captain's description of Macbeth's killing Macdonald the traitor; murderer's description of the dead Banquo; Lady Macbeth saying she would 'dash brains out' of a child
Analysis - look at how specific techniques work:

'T
wen
ty
tren
ched
gash
es
to
his
head
'
Start withe the end in mind!
Lesson: Micro-Managing a Point
Step 1: Take your basic plan point, and write it up as a comparative point for your essay.
Eg.
both explore physical violence / terror
Both Shakespeare and Poe explore elements of physical violence in their respective works
Step 2: Add CONTEXTUAL and EVALUATIVE elements to your point
Both Shakespeare and Poe explore elements of physical violence in their respective works
Despite having been written over two hundred years apart
, both Shakepeare and Poe explore elements of physical violence
with harrowing effects
.
Step 3: Move into details of how WRITER1 does this...
Despite having been written over two hundred years apart, both Shakespeare and Poe explore elements of physical violence with harrowing effects.

In his play, Shakespeare creates terror through not actually showing violence, but by having his characters describe it. As can be seen in the following example, these usually centre around the violence of the protagonist, such as in this graphic example of Macbeth's undoing of Macdonald the traitor in Act I:

'...unseam'd him from the knave to the chaps...'

The chilling and unconventional use of the verb 'unseam'd' forces the audience to visualise the gutting of the traitor, thus emphasising, with some irony, Macbeth's merciless slaughter of all who stand in the way.


Step 4: Now bring in the second writer:
Similarly / alternatively, Edgar Allen Poe, in the story....
... and do the same!
Step 5: Having done this, bring them together with a 'mini-conclusion' for that point...
So, where Shakespeare, despite being a dramatist, often uses language and imagery to help his audience visualise violence, Poe often uses a plainer diction to show how the violent narrator sees nothing out of the ordinary in what the reader recognises to be psychopathic behaviour.
Step 6: Check , improve & ensure it's imaginative, critical, comparing and evaluative!
You should then have a full main point written up within your essay!
How to Tell it's GOTHIC?


Fun infographics from
Macbeth's Problems:
Problem
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
What would
you do
What does
Macbeth do?
why?
why?
TASK After reading
In the story, the victim is
solely portrayed through
the eyes of the narrator.

Move through the story with a highlighter, picking out key sections where the victim is being referred to / described. Within these,
underline key words / phrases what make a
particular impression upon the reader.

Compare with a partner. Have
you picked similar examples?
Discuss!
Banquo as Victim
Macbeth's attitude
towards him
How Banquo presents himself before and during the attack
Banquo as ghost -
Fleance as victim
leading up to Act 3
making a decision
involvement of others
manner in which he carries it out
leading up to Act III
Conversation with Macbeth in Act III
During the attack
what it means
audience and Macbeth's reactions - similar?
reactions of others present
how it changes perceptions of Macbeth and his future
Significance of Fleance
Presentation of Fleance before attack
Macbeth's reaction to Fleance's escape
How we as the audience feel
Link to other references to children??
Full transcript