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The Bible, Christ, and the Spirit
Transcript of The Bible, Christ, and the Spirit
The Bible, Christ, and the Spirit
What is theology?
Carl Henry- “The proper task of theology is to exposit and elucidate the content of Scripture in an orderly way. Christian theology is the systematization of the truth-content both explicit and implicit in the inspired writing.”
(God, Revelation, and Authority Vol. 1, 238).
Definition of Theology
Stanley Grenz- “Theology is the believing communities’ intellectual reflections on faith”
(Revisioning Evangelical Theology, 81).
Charles Ryrie—Systematic theology correlates the data of biblical revelation as a whole in order to exhibit systematically the total picture of God’s self-revelation.
...related to all truth
Overview of theology
The Bible is the perfect revelation of God.
My response is ...
...and then obey.
Our View of...
the communication and manifestation of God to His creation.
God's communication of himself to all persons at all times and in all places
God's particular communication of himself to particular people,
at particular times, and particular places.
Ps. 19:1; Rom. 1:20
Job 12:23; Dan. 2:21; Acts 17:26
Gen. 1:26-27; Rom. 2:11-16
the process by which God, through the Spirit, preserved His special revelation in the Bible. He did this through His providential preparation of Bible authors and in his supernatural oversight of the writing process, so that the original books of scripture were the very Word of God.
"The inspiration of God, then, extends to every part of Scripture, including everything that God affirmed (or denied about any topic. It is inclusive of not only what the Bible teaches but also what it touches; that is to say, it includes not only what the Bible explicitly teaches, but also what it teaches implicitly, covering not only spiritual matters but factual ones as well." Geisler, 237.
Views of inspiration:
Inspiration does not mean...
...that authors don't use hyperbole (Col. 1:23)
...that everything recorded in the Bible is true (Gen. 3:4)
...that Bible authors don't round numbers (2 Chron 4:3)
...that all Scripture quotation is verbatim
...that the same truth can only be said one way
...that Bible authors can't use phenomenological language (Ps. 19:4-6)
The Bible is fully truthful in all that it affirms.
1) God is true,
2) The Bible is God's Word,
3) The Bible is true.
1) Man errs,
2) The Bible is man's word,
3) The Bible is errant.
Views of Inerrancy:
Absolute: truth = exactitude (Num 25:9 and I Cor 10:8)
Limited: true regarding salvation
Purpose: true in its purpose
Full: truth=accuracy in all areas
Points of Explanation
Inerrancy pertains to what is asserted rather than what is reported. What is reported is reported accurately. Example: reported lies
Inerrancy must be judge by the meaning of the time and culture of the original writing. Example: geneaologies
Exactness must be determined by the purpose of the writing. Example: 2 Chron. 4:2; Matthew, Mark, and Luke
Historic events and scientific matters are explained with phenomenal language not technical language. Example: sunrise.
A lack adequate explanation for difficult passages should not result in a judgement of errpr. Exaple:Hittites; Matt. 27:5 and Acts 1:18
Scriptural evidence points to the inerrancy of the original autographs.
Adapted from Christian Theology by Millard Erickson, 259-263.
The Bible, as the expression of God's will to us, possesses
the right supremely to define what we are to believe
and how we are to conduct ourselves.
From Christian Theology by Millard Erickson, 267
Points of Explanation
The authority of the Bible ultimately rests in the person of God.
The authority of the Bible is self-attested.
The OT attests to its authority.
Jesus insisted on the authority of the OT.
Jesus insisted on the authority of His own words.
Jesus indicated divine authority in the words of the apostles.
The apostles claimed divine authority for their own words.
The apostles attest to the authority of the gospel.
The apostles attest to the authority of each other.
What's the trouble with authority?
Is the Bible the our sole authority?
The Bible contains all that word of God that we need for salvation, sanctification, and worship.
Points of Explanation
The Bible is understandable.
The Bible is necessary.
The Bible is profitable.
The Bible is complete.
The Bible is comprehensive.
The Bible is not exhaustive.
Gospel of Thomas
1 and 2 Maccabees
Bel and the Dragon
Gospel of Judas
The group of writings acknowledged to be the sacred, God-given rule of the Christian faith.
Bel and the Dragon
1 and 2 Maccabees
Gospel of Judas
Gospel of Thomas
Three Views of Canon
The Open Canon
The Closed Canon
F.F. Bruce--"One thing must be emphatically stated. The New Testament books did not become authoratative for the Church because they were formally included in a canonical list; on the contrary, the Church included them in the list because she had already regarded them as divinely inspired, recognizing their innate worth."
The New Testament Documents: Are they Reliable?, 22.
You must distinguish the
The Jewish Canon
called the TaNaK
built through history
sources acknowledge the Jewish canon
The Christian Canon
Contains all the Jewish canon
27 additional books
affirms the Jewish canon
equates its own authority with the Jewish canon
Prophetic or apostolic origination
Accepted by the Jews/Church as scripture
Consistent with the message of the Bible.
Jesus Christ is the ultimate deciding criterion of canon.
The Apocrypha for the OT
Other gospels for the NT.
How can I say that I trust this canon?
What's in your canon?
Autograph--the original document
Manuscripts--hand made copies of Bible text
Text--printed edition of the scriptures in the original languages
Transmission--the process of copying and spreading the Bible
The Story of the OT
1) Careful preparation of materials
2) nothing done from memory
3) carefulness when writing God's name
4) letters could not touch
5) exact copies
6) careful review process
7) bad copies were destroyed
Variant--different readings between manuscripts
Textual criticism--the process of determining the original reading
Process of Transmission
The Story of the NT
Types of Copiest Errors
Substitution of a similar sounding word
Omission of words because of line skipping
Repetition of words
Reversal of word order
Incorrect division of words
50-100--NT Books Written
Two Issues in Translation
The Eclectic Text
The Majority Text
Christ in the Bible Narrative
Christ in the Old Testament
"the Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet" (Deut. 18:15)
"I have come to fulfill the law and the prophets" (Matt. 5:17)
Christ is the conquering seed of the woman (Gen. 3:15)
Christ is the promised seed of Abraham (Gen. 15)
Christ is the promised Prophet (Deut. 18:15)
Christ is the promised Messiah (II Sam. 7)
Aaron and the Priesthood
Deliverance from Egypt
The Temple and Tabernacle
The Sacrificial System
Christophanies are Old Testament appearances of Christ. Christ is most often called the Angel of the Lord in these passages.
Christ in the New Testament
Matthew presents Jesus as the long-awaited Messiah. The one who brings the OT to its intended purposes and who brings salvation through His death.
Mark presents Jesus as the promised Messiah who comes to establish the Kingdom of God, but that he does this in an unexpected way--by serving and suffering. Christians need to understand that true discipleship includes service and suffering.
Luke presents Jesus as the Savior of the whole world. He is the one who brings final, universal salvation.
John presents Jesus as the divine Son who has come into the world to reveal the Father. While distinct from the Father He is fully divine. He is the Word of God--God's perfect self-revelation.
Hebrews presents Jesus as the heavenly high priest of the New Covenant. He came to earth and offered Himself as the once-for-all sacrifice for sin. Through Him we have access to God and salvation.
Colossians presents Christ as the divine, supreme being of the universe. He is the Creator and Sustainer of the universe. He alone is worthy of our worship and service.
Revelation presents Jesus as the loving protector of His people, who conquers and judges the evil of the world and rules over the world as its perfect King.
The Deity of Jesus
The Humanity of Jesus
My kingdom and angels (Matt. 13:41)
Forgiving sins (Mark 2)
Judges the world (Matt. 25:31-46)
Lord of Sabbath (Mark 2)
One with the Father (John 10:30)
"Before Abraham was, I Am" (John 8:58)
"I am the light of the world" (John 8:12)
His trial (John 19:7)
"My Lord and My God" (John 20:28)
"but I say unto you..." (Matt. 5)
"Son of God" (John 5:18)
Use of "kurios" in the LXX
Quotations (Isa. 8:13 and I Peter 3:15)
"Kurios" used for Jesus and the Father (Rev. 4:11 and 19:16)
The resurrection confirmed the message of Jesus as being a divine message. This would include His claims to be God, incarnate.
Heresies related to the Deity of Jesus
taught that Jesus was a human of unusual talents of righteousness and wisdom. He became the "Christ" at His baptism and experienced the unique presence of God.
taught that Jesus was not God, but rather was the first of God's creation. He existed before the Incarnation but as the highest of creation, not God himself. The slogan of Arianism was "there was a time when he was not."
is the view that the New Testament does not really concern itself with the question of Christ's nature and so the focus should be on the words and works of Jesus.
We know the truth about God (John 14:9)
Appropriate worship of Jesus
1 John 1:1
What did Jesus know?
How and why?
Relationship with God
Heresies related to the Humanity of Jesus
taught that Jesus appeared as a man. The name comes from the word dokeo which means to "seem". This view sprang from Greek philosophy which viewed the physical realm as evil.
taught that Jesus was partially human and partially divine. The body was human but the soul was divine.
We know the truth about humanity
Jesus can be our true example
The Virgin Birth
The Early Church Tradition
Why it matters?
Veracity of Scripture
Sinlessness of Jesus
Uniqueness of Jesus
In the incarnation, Jesus was one person with two natures. He was fully human and fully divine. These two natures dwelt in Jesus without conflict and with full compatability.
Basic Tenets of the Two Natures in One Person
1) We need to view the incarnation more as the addition of humanity rather than the subtraction of deity. When Jesus became man what he surrendered was His position of equality with God, not His nature of being God. In His incarnation He was what the Father was in nature but was subordinate to the Father. He did this to reveal the Father and provide redemption. In adding humanity He willingly accepted certain limitations on His divine attributes.
2) The two natures functioned together at all times. He life was always that of the Man-God. For instance, He always had the power of omnipresence, but in a human body this was limited. This was a self-chosen limitation. There are times when Jesus is lead to reveal His divine nature as it relates to His unique purpose in coming to the earth.
3) We need to understand clearly that the incarnation was the union of divinity and unfallen humanity. In the incarnation Jesus represents perfect humanity. The question is not whether Jesus is fully human, but whether we are! Remember that humanity is the part of Creation that most closely resembles God. This is the Biblical starting point for understanding humanity. This has been wrecked by the fall which renders it hard for us to reconcile.
4) This problem is really complicated. Jesus was a complex person. There are tensions about the hypostatic union that will always challenge us to believe the witness of Scripture even when we cannot account for every last detail.
5) The hypostatic union is ultimately necessary for the redemption of mankind. The incarnation is the ultimate condecension of God to lowly man. Jesus is the unique Son of God and Son of Man. Only He could provide the final solution to the sin problem. This must always be remembered when contemplating the hypostatic union.
1) Adoptionism--the human Jesus became God.
2) Anhypostaticism--God took on generic humanity rather than becoming an individual human person
3) Kenoticism--Jesus exchanged His deity for humanity
4) Dynamic Incarnation--the incarnation was the power of God present in a human being
Could Jesus Sin?
Peccable or Impeccable
The Works of Jesus
Stages of Christ's Work
Jesus is preexistent and eternal.
I Corinthians 8:6;
Christ has been active throughout history to bring about the plan of redemption.
Christ demonstrates His...
Christ's death was...
...physically painful, and
The resurrection demonstrates Christ's victory over...
The ascension indicates...
...the end of the limitations of the incarnation,
...the coming of the Holy Spirit,
...the work of Christ preparing a place for us,
...His presence with us,
...His position in the universe, and
...the final stage of God's plan for history.
Offices of Christ's Work
Jesus functions as a prophet in that he ...
...is the ultimate example of a human prophet,
...He reveals the Father,
...that He is the Logos.
Christ rules in that...
...He is the sovereign of the universe
...He is the Davidic King
...He is the end-times ruler of the world.
Jesus functions as a priest in that...
...He meditates between us a God 1Tim 2:5,
...He pleads our righteousness Romans 8:33-34
...He intercedes for us Heb. 7:25; 9:24.
...He helps is in temptation Heb. 2:18
Views of the Atonement
The Atonement as Example--
This view emphasizes the humanity of Jesus. His death is the ultimate example of a human's devotion to God. His death demonstrates the kind of devotion that we should have for God and inspires us to live that way.
The Atonement as God's Love on Full Display--
This view emphasizes the divinity of Jesus. In His death Jesus demonstrated how much God loves His creation. The problem was the man did not understand how much God loved them. This needed to be rectified. The atonement results in a new openness to God.
The Atonement as Victory over Sin and Satan--
This view understands the atonement the final act in a cosmic struggle between Satan and God. Satan is the ruler of all men and holds them in his power. He demands the price of Christ's blood for a ransom. Christ gives the price but in the end also recovers His own life.
The Atonement as a Substitutionary Sacrifice--
This view acknowledges several key elements:
The Importance of God's Holiness
The Problem of Sin
The Justice of God
The Ineptitude of Man
The Grace of God
The Person of the Holy Spirit
Why is this important?
1) The Trinity becomes personal to us through the
Spirit's involvement in our lives.
2) The Spirit is the person of the Trinity whose work
is especially important in the world today.
3) There is alot of misunderstanding about the Spirit.
Two questions about the Spirit:
Is He God?
1) God and Spirit are used interchangeably.
Acts 5; I Cor 3:16-17 and 6:19-20
2) The Spirit shares the attributes of God.
--Omniscience John 16:13; I Cor 2:10-11
--Omnipotence Luke 1:35
--Eternality Heb 1:10-12
3) The Spirit performs works that only God can do.
--Creation Job 26:13
--Salvation Titus 3:5; Romans 8:11
--Inspiration 2 Tim 3:16
4) The Spirit is associated with the Trinity
Matt 28:19; 2 Cor 13:14; 1Cor 12:4-6
Is He a person?
1) Personal pronoun used for neuter word.
2) The Spirit is the paraklete.
3) The Spirit's works are those of the Trinity
4) The Spirit has intellect, emotions, and will.
Acts 5; 15:28; Eph 4:30; Mark 3:29
The Work of the Spirit
In the Old Testament
Creation Gen 1:2
Prophecy Ezek 2:2
Empowerment for particular tasks
Power for leadership
Gen 41:38; Num 11:25; Deut 34:9
Daily life of Israel Ps 51:11; Isa 63:10
OT anticipates a fuller work of the Spirit
In the Life of Christ
Birth Luke 1:35; Matt 1:20;
Inauguration of ministry John 1:32
Temptation Mark 1:12
Whole of His ministry
Luke 4:1; 4:14; 4:18-21 (cf. Isa 61:1-2); Luke 10:21; Matt 12:28
Resurrection Roman 8:11
In the Life of the Believer
Outline from Christians Theology by Millard Erickson
At the Beginning
Conversion John 16:8-11
Regeneration John 3
Baptism 1 Cor 12:13
Present Work in the Believer
Pentecostals have taught two
1) the first makes you part of the body and
2) the second results in greater spirtual blessing,
including the ability to speak in tongues.
This view explains the "second" experiences that many Christians have after salvation. They support this view by what appear to be acts of the Spirit subsequent to salvation in the book of Acts (8; 10; 19).
What is Spirit baptism?
What about the Acts passages?
What about secondary experiences?
Indwelling Rom 8:9-11
Sealing 2 Cor 1:22; Eph 1:13; 4:30
Filling Eph 5:18
Gifting 1 Cor 12
A Closer Look at Spirit Filling
There seem to be two nuances to Spirit-filling in the NT.
1) There is filling for the accomplishment of a particular task.
Acts 2:4; 4:8, 31
2) There is a lifestyle of Holy Spirit "control".
Acts 6:3,5; Eph 5:18
What are the results of a Spirit-filled life?
Views of Sanctification
1 Cor 12:8-10; 28 Rom 8:6-8 Eph 4:11 1 Peter 4:11
What they are not:
they are not a place
they are not an office
they are not an age group
they are not talent
A spiritual gift is an ability given by the Spirit to each believer for the purpose of building the body of Christ, the Church.
Role of the Holy Spirit In Guidance and Illumination
1) The Spirit has acted in history to inspire the Bible writers to write the very words of God. In a basic way the Holy Spirit allows all people to know the meaning of the Bible.
2) The Spirit works more particularly to convince men of the real purpose of the Bible. The Bible is written to reveal God and the way of salvation for man. Proper interpretation and preaching of the Bible requires a proper understanding of this function and purpose. Only the Holy Spirit is able to reveal this truth to man.
3) Holy Spirit fills a believer to allow him to operate in accordance with the Law of Christ. In this way the believer can approach the Bible with the clouding effects of sin diminished. This highlights the need for everyone who concerned to be an accurate Bible teacher to guard their own lives against sin. It has been said, "this book will keep you from sin, or sin will keep you from this book."
4) As the member of the Trinity directly involved in the inspiration of scripture, the Holy Spirit's indwelling of the believer becomes the greatest asset a Bible teacher can have. This also means the Holy Spirit works with His own writing, the Bible. Because He is the Spirit of Truth, He will never contradict Himself.
5) The Holy Spirit works to convict, prompt, and exhort us to the proper application of Bible truth. This is done both through the internal prompting of the Spirit, but also through the witness of the Spirit through the church.
6) The interpretive work of the Spirit also works through the body of Christ. This means that interpreters must take care to listen to the witness of faithful men in the past and be submitted to the God ordained authorities in the church.
The ability to proclaim something God
spontaneously brings to mind.
The ability to perform special signs,
this very often included healing ailments.
The particular ability to proclaim
the gospel with clarity and effectiveness.
The ability to shepherd, provide for,
and protect God's people.
The ability to explain God's truth
and apply it to people's lives
The ability to easily rely on God's Word
The ability to help and serve in the broadest sense.
The ability to help those who are in particular need.
This is ability to lead and rule the body.
What about tongues?
1) What is this gift Biblically?
Wrong View #1: It is a private prayer language
Wrong View #2: It is a heavenly language
Right View: Tongues was the ability to supernaturally speak in an
earthly language that was previously unknown by the
2) How was it to function?
Wrong view: Tongues is a gift that is for all Christians to confirm that they are baptized with the Spirit. It is a gift that operates at the Spirit's whim and cannot be controlled.
Right view: The Bible lays out specific guidelines for the operation of tongues in the church.
1) They were to be employed "decently and in
2) Not everyone speaks in tongues (12:10)
3) Women were not to speak in tongues in the
4) No more than three were to speak (14:27)
5) Tongues were not to be spoken without an
6) They were to take turns speaking (14:27)
3) Are tongues for today?
I Corinthians 13:10--
This verse cannot be used as a conclusive proof
for the cessation of tongues.
Tongues was given for the purpose of a sign of the authenticity of the gospel to those who had not previously heard the message. It seems that the need for confirmation was especially acute as the gospel for (1) Jews, (2) new ethnic groups that were not considered natural constituents of the gospel, and (3) possibly in new regions.
It is the professor's own view that tongues is no longer given as a gift to the church. It is possible in rare instances for God to use tongues in a similar situation today, especially in areas of pioneer gospel ministry, just as God is free to perform miracles and heal people. However, these gifts are not to be sought as the normal part of the Christian's experience.
Discovering your place:
1) Take inventory of how God has made you
2) Be content in your marital state
3) Seek a variety of opprotunities
4) Be active in the church
5) Be willing to do anything
6) Listen to what people tell you
Evidence for the OT Canon
The OT claims divine authority
The OT quotes itself as Scripture
All of the OT books, except Esther, are found in the DSS.
Philo, Josephus, and the Council of Jamnia attest to the Jewish canon.
The NT quotes the OT 250 times as Scripture.
All books except Esther, Song of Solomon, and Ecclesiastes are quoted.
Jesus established the OT canon (Luke 11:51; Matthew 5:17)
Evidence for the NT Canon
Jesus established apostolic authority
The NT claims authority on par with the OT (I Tim. 5:17-18)
The NT calls other NT writing Scripture (2 Pet. 3:16)
The church recognized these books as sacred.
Understanding the KJV Only Movement
There is a range of opinion within the KJVO movement. There are some who believe that God did a separate work of inspiration when the KJV was translated. Others believe that it is at least theoretically possible for another translation to be permissable, but apply such strict parameters that they are not really open to other options. What is shared in common is the idea that the text has been preserved in one text/translation.
Answering the KJV Only Movement
The KJV NT was translated from the TR, a Greek text that was hastily put together and that had numerous problems.
The KJV translators made mistakes in their translation work.
The KJV translators did not have access to moderm linguistic tools and did not understand Greek and Hebrew as well as modern translators do.
The KJV uses archaic language that places it outside of the grasp of normal English speakers and readers.
The KJV is limited in scope, both in time and in geography.
One of the best critiques of KJVO is the preface to the KJV.