Transcript of Chapter 23 Sec. 2+3
Double click anywhere & add an idea The Counterculture A Time of Change Counterculture - Group of young Americans in the 1960's who rejected conventional customs and mainstream culture. / The people that adopted this style were also called "hippies." The look of the 1960's was distinctive, frivolous, and free. Women started giving up on the structured hairstyles in the 1950's. They also started wearing loose-fitted dresses. Even the men started to let there hair grow long and wore beards. The colorful look of the 1960's was not confined to clothing. Hippies painted their cars and their bodies. This spirit of fun and irreverence also invaded the art world. The Pop Art of the 1960's, such as paintings by Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein, featured realistic depictions of the artifacts in modern life. Scorned at the time, the satirical paintings of soup cans and comic books now hang in art museums. Another style of art was Op Art, it captured the spirit of the 1960's with its fluorescent colors and dizzying optical illusions. The participants in the counterculture demanded more freedom to make personal choices in how they dressed, they also demanded more freedom to choose how they lived. Their new views of sexual conduct, which rejected many traditional restrictions on behavior, were labeled "the sexual revolution." Many hippies experimented with new living patterns. Some hippies rejected traditional relationships and lived together in communal groups, where they often shared property and chores. Others just simply lived together without getting married. The sexual revolution in the counterculture led to more open discussion of sexual subjects in the mainstream media. Newspapers, magazines, and books published articles that might not have been printed just a few years earlier. The 1962 book by Helen Gurley Brown, Sex and the Single Girl, became a best seller. In 1966, William H. Masters and Virginia E. Johnson shocked many people when they published Human Sexual Response, a report on their scientific studies of sexuality. Some members of the 1960's counterculture also turned to psychedelic drugs. These powerful chemicals cause the brain to behave abnormally. Users of psychedelic drugs experience hallucinations and other altered perceptions of reality. The beatniks of the 1950's, who were an inspiration to the 1960's counterculture, had experimented with drugs, but the beatniks had been relatively few in number. In the 1960's, the use of drugs, especially marijuana, became much more widespread among the nation's youth. Timothy Leary was a researcher that worked at Harvard Unversity with Richard Alpert on the chemical compound LSD. The two men were fired from their research posts in 1963 for involving undergraduates in experiments with the drug. The Music World Music both reflected and contributed to the cultural changes of the 1960's. The rock and roll of the 1950's had begun a musical revolution, giving young people a music of their own that scandalized many adults. Members of the counterculture turned to traditional songs that had been passed down from generation to generation of "folk," or ordinary people around the world. They also favored songs of protest against oppression; songs of laborers, such as sailors and railroadmen, and songs that originated under slavery. The year 1964 marked a revolution in rock music that some called the British Invasion. It was the year the Beatles first toured America. The "Fab Four" had already taken their native England by storm. They became a sensation in the US as well, not only for their music but also for their "mop top" long hair. The beatles heavily influenced the music of the period, as did another British group, the Rolling Stones. Mick Jagger of the Stones was a dramatic and eclectrifying showman. Another exciting performer was Texan Janis Joplin, a hard-drinking singer whose powerful interpretations of classic blues songs catapulted her to superstardom. The diverse strands of the counterculture all came together at the Woodstock Music and Art Fair in August of 1969. About 400,000 people gathered together for several days in a large pasture in Bethel, New York, to listen to the major bands of the rock world. Despite the brutal heat and rain, those who attended the Woodstock festival recalled the event with something of a sense of awe for the fellowship they experienced there. Woodstock Festival is a music festival in upstate New York. Police avoided confrontations with those who attended by choosing not to enforce drug laws. To some Americans, the counterculture represented a rejection of morals and honored values, and seen a childish reaction to the problems of the era. The fears of those who criticized Woodstock came true at another rock festival held at the Altamont Speedway in California in December of 1969. There, 300,000 people gathered for a concert by the Rolling Stones. When promoters of the concert failed to provide adequate security, the Stones hired a band of Hell's Angels, an infamous and lawless motorcycle gang, to keep order. The cyclists ended up beating one man to death when he approached the stage with a gun. This ugly violence contradicted the values preached by the counterculture. It also signaled that the era of "peace and love" would not last forever. The Environmental and Consumer Movements In 1958, Olga Huckins from Massachusetts wrote a letter to Rachel Carson ,and set off a revolution. An airplane had sprayed Huckin's neighborhood with DDT to control mosquitoes, and the next day she had found dead birds in her yard.Full transcript
Huckins had asked Carson, a bioligist, to look into the connection. The result was Silent Spring, the 1962 book that started the environmental movement. Carson's story links two protest movements of the 1960's and 1970's. Both the environmental movement and the consumer movement demanded honesty and accountability from industry and government. Enviromentalists went further and they called for actions that would preserve and restore the earth's environment and resources. According to enviromental activists, the very products that people used in an effort to improve their world and their lives to control mosquitoes, for example, were damaging not only the health of the environment but the health of the people as well. Like the women's movement, the environmental movement of the 1960's had roots in the American past. In the late 1890's and early 1900's, progressives had worked to make public lands and parks abvailable for the enjoyment of the population. New Deal programs of the 1930's included tree-planting projects in an effort to put poeple back to work and conserve forests and farmlands. The modern environmental movement would not have started without Rachel Carson. Rachel Carson was a marine bioigist that grew up wanting to become a writer. Her mother taught her to appreciate nature and encouraged Carson's growing interest in zoology. In the 1930's and 1940's, Carson combined her talents and began to write about scientific subjects for general audiences. In 1951, she published The Sea Around Us, which was and imediate bestseller and won the National Book Award. This book, and her next, The Edge of the Sea, made her famous as a naturalist. In the book Silent Spring, Carson spoke out against the use of chemical pesticides, particularly DDT. During the 1960's, the concern about the overuse of nonrenewable resources, such as oil and gas, encouraged the development of nuclear power plants to generate electricity. They thought that these plants would be better than coal-burning plants because of less air pollution but the nuclear plants discharged water to cool the reactor into local waterways, raising temperatures and killing fish and plant life. Objections to nuclear power plants began to develop. These objections were also fueled by a growing concern about the possibility of nuclear plant accidents. The fear was that in event of an accident, radioactivity would be released into the air, causing serious damage or death to all plant and animal life in the surrounding area. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), created in 1974, tried to address these fears as it oversaw the use of nuclear materials in civilian life. The main goal of the NRC was to ensure that nuclear power plants and facilities were operated safely. People from all walks of life were becoming alarmed by environmental problems. Biologist Barry Commoner, for example, warned about rapid increases in pollution in his 1971 book The Closing Circle. The Sierra Club, an organization founded in 1892 to further nature conservation, became active in opposing power projects that the group thought would harm the environment. The efforts of environmental activists and the concern of the public at large helped spur the frederal government to create a new agency that would set and enforce national pullution-control standards. In 1970, President Nixon established the Enviromental Protection Agency (EPA) by combining existing federal agencies concerned with air and water pollution. One of the EPA's early responsibilities was to enforce the Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act instituted a research and development program to prevent and control air pollution. In 1972, the EPA gained further responsibilities when Congress enacted the Clean Water Act to regulate the discharge of industrial and municipal wastewater.