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Social Justice Presentation

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Aby Corrigan

on 6 March 2014

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Transcript of Social Justice Presentation

Does Social Class affect Educational Achievement?
Social Class
So, can Economic Status cause a barrier to learning?
Working class pupils are less likely to achieve 5+ A*-C passes at GCSE than their middle class peers and are less likely to go on to higher education (Babb, 2005; OFSTED, 2005). They are also less likely to attend a popular and successful school (Sutton Trust, 2005).
Parents' Social Class affecting Children's GCSE results. The figures.
Learning in the home and at school: how working class children ‘succeed against the odds’
What is an extended school?
What is Social Class
Abigail, Chloe, Kelly, Kirsty and Kyle
"I don't like school, 'cos you have to work."
"School is too long."
"If you don't go to school, your Dad will go to jail."
"I hate school, teachers shout at me."
"It can be good to learn if they make things fun to learn."
"There isn't very many bad things about school."
What ten and eleven year olds think about school (Horgan 2007)
Advantaged Schools
Disadvantaged schools
"I don't like taking work home because...you don't get out to play."
What is Social Class?
Extended Schools
Provides a range of activities and services beyond the school day
Help meet the needs of its pupils, their families and the wider community
What do Extended schools involve?
Breakfast clubs
Homework clubs
Activities aimed particularly at vulnerable groups
Holiday activities
Adult education
Community use of school facilities
If children are unable to get the sufficient help at home it gives them the opportunity to have to the help and complete their homework.
Can help improve pupil attainment, behaviour and motivation
Engages pupils in new cultural and sporting activities which has a knock - on impact on motivation
*Never worked and long term unemployed
This data shows a rise in the proportion of young people gaining five or more GCSEs amongst all family backgrounds. However there is still a long way to go before young people from lower socio - economic groups narrow the achievement gap with those from higher socio - economic groups
GCSE performance by parental occupation
*Never worked and long term unemployed
Basil Bernstein's Sociolinguistic Theory of Language Codes
'Basil Bernstein makes a significant contribution to the study of communication with his sociolinguistic theory of language codes.'

Littlejohn, (2002) suggests that Bernstein's theory shows how the language people use in everyday conversation both reflects and shapes the assumptions of a certain social group.
Littlejohn, (2002) states, 'people learn their place in the world by virtue of the language codes they employ.'

Bernstein, (1971) adds 'The code that a person uses indeed symbolizes their social identity.'
According to Atherton (2002), 'the elaborated code spells everything out, not because it is better, but because it is necessary so that everyone can understand it. It has to elaborate because the circumstances do not allow the speaker to condense.'

Atherton (2002) adds - in differentiating between restricted and elaborated codes, it is noted that elaborated code can 'stand on its own', it is complete and full of detail, most overhearing a conversation would be able to understand it. However, restricted code is shorted, condensed and requires background information and prior knowledge.

Bernstein (1971) purports that, 'The orientation towards these codes may be governed entirely by the form of the social relation, or more generally by the quality of social structure.'
Education cannot compensate for society
'There is no doubt that academic outcomes from schools are heavily stratified by social and economic background, at least as much as the school intakes are.' Gorard, S. (2010)

Harris and Gorard. (2010) One of the main reasons for post-compulsory educational initiatives, from 14-19 reforms to widening access to higher education and third-age provision, has been to increase equality of outcomes in the system, so reducing the link between origin and opportunity for all individuals.

Access to education has become increasingly open, since 1944 in the UK, but still remains more of a challenge to a child used to the language of the ‘restricted’ codes employed by their family and friends.

Does this explain the continued patterning of attainment and opportunity?

Do teachers tend to be middle-class professionals favouring, or simply finding it easier to relate to, the students most like them?

Is there a kind of social or cultural ‘capital’ available to parents from more privileged backgrounds that they then invest in their children’s education (Bourdieu 1977)?

There are clearly limits to what schools and education systems can do to encourage the level and equality of the outcomes associated with them. As Bernstein (1970) said ‘Education cannot compensate for society’.
Pring (2009) illustrates this point with a list of example challenges that include extended adolescence, changing family patterns, an increase in families in which no member has been employed, and the mental health problems and reported unhappiness of many young people in the UK.

Teachers can discriminate between pupils fairly, and can even have children whose company they are known to prefer to others. Usually, it is the hard-working and talented pupils who are preferred in this way.

It is fair that teachers award marks for effort and attainment, or punish those who behave badly (merited reward, but inequality of outcome). It is fair that every child is treated with respect by their teachers, regardless of sex, ethnicity, class, or talent (equality of treatment). Gorard, S. (2010)
Acar, E (2011:458) Effects of Social Capital on academic success: A narrative synthesis, Department of Human Development, Marywood University, PA, USA

Atherton, J. (2002). http://www.doceo.co.uk/language_codes.htm

Bernstein, B. (1971). Class, Codes and Control. Volume 1. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Bourdieu, P. Cultural reproduction and social reproduction, pp 487-511 in Karabel, J. and Halsey, A. (Eds.) Power and ideology in education, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Coughlan, S (2012) UK University applications down as fees rise, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-16787948 (Accessed 12th April 2013)

Coughlan, S (2013) Gove sets out ‘core knowledge’ curriculum plans, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-21346812 (Accessed 12th April 2013)

DiMaggio, P (1982:195) Cultural Capital and School Success, American Sociological Review 47, 189-201, 199

Gorard, S. (2010) Education can compensate for society – a bit. Birmingham: The School of Education, The University of Birmingham pg 2,6, 11, 12.

Harris, N. and Gorard, S. (2010) The Education System of the United Kingdom, in Döbert, Hans/Hörner, Wolfgang/von Kopp, Botho/Reuter, Lutz (Hrsg.) Die Bildungssysteme Europas, Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren.

Littlejohn, S. (2002). Theories of Human Communication. Albuquerque: Wadsworth.

Otero, G, Chambers-Otero, S, Sparks, M & Sparks, R, 2001, RelationaLearning: Education for Mind, Body and Spirit, Melbourne, Hawker Brownlow Education

Pringle, B et al (1993) Peer Tutoring and Mentoring Services for Disadvantaged Secondary School Students: An Evaluation of the Secondary Schools Basic Skills Demonstration Assistance Program.

Pring, R. (2009) Education cannot compensate for society: reflections on the Nuffield Review of 14-19 Education and Training, Forum, 51, 2, 197-204.

Putnam et al (2000) Better Together: Restoring the American Community, Simon & Schuster, New York, USA

Siraj-Blatchford, I. (2010) Learning in the home and at school: how working class children ‘succeed against the odds’ British Educational Research Journal, 36 (3): 463-482.

Sullivan, A (2002:155) How Useful is Bourdieu’s Theory For Researchers? http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/library-media%5Cdocuments%5CBOURDIEU%20NetherlandsJournal.pdf (Accessed 9th April 2013)

West-Burnham, J, Otero, G (Date accessed 13th April 2013:3) Leading Together to Build Social Capital, https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/nlc_cdc_wawla03_02_Leading%20together%20to%20build%20social%20capital%20(Think%20Piece%202).pdf
Some issues
Pose special problems of management, can schools manage the range of services to be offered
A risk that extended schools will be seen as schools for problem families and stigmatized
Achievement versus Welfare - Welfare has taken second place to achievement and grades.
Case study of:
- 3000 children aged 3-11 from England
- disadvantaged families from white and minority ethnic groups

- studied quality of education at school and at home

- created the HLE (Home Learning Environment) Index which rated the amount of educational activities carried out at home on a scale of 0-7 i.e. 0 = not occurring and 7 = frequently occurring
- found the higher the score, the more intellectual and socially developed the child became

- shows the importance of pre-school experiences

- found quality of education at home to be the most significant factor in predicting child's outcomes

- disadvantaged parents had highest aspirations

- results were best with a combined high HLE index score and a good pre-school but boy's showed a lower HLE score by nearly 2x girls
Peters et al's (2007) survey found poor parents don't need to be persuaded to provide extra support, they often have a more positive view towards this but don't have the resources to carry it out
Ginsberg (2007) argues many middle class children are over scheduled because of this and suffer from a 'hurried' and over academic lifestyle.

On average children from middle class families take part in 4.9 extra curricular activities, where as, children from poorer backgrounds only take part in 1.5
"Concerted cultivation" (lareau 2003) includes :
- homework help
- hiring extra tuition
- parental encouragement & reward
- communication between parent & child
- other extra curricular activities ie sports, trips, arts
Average HLE points above the mean for their ethnic group (SES 1–7) 6
Single parents (%) 57
Deprived environments (index of multiple deprivation) (%) 79
Eligible for free school meals in reception (%) 50
Low birth weight (under 2500 g) (%) 46
Socio-economic status 7 (lowest) (%) 37.5
What Policies have been put into place to address this situation?
- Drew from the US Head Start Programme

- Aim of Sure Start was to ‘enhance the health, development and future prospects of young children living in deprived communities’ (Bates et al 2011)

- Brought together numerous organisations such as healthcare, child-care, education, play, parental support and home support

- New Labour aimed to have one of these in every neighbourhood

- 'Starting strong' (2000 & 2006) stressed the importance of high quality early years education and called for state investment

- 'Babies and bosses' (2004) proposed the use of Child-care tax credits for working mothers to encourage women to work
- United Nations Human Poverty Index state that 1/3 of children are living in poverty in the UK

- According to Baldock et al (2009) high levels of childhood poverty were considered to be the result of the ‘market-driven economic strategies and low investment in education, health and welfare for children’

- ‘Tackling child poverty is the best anti-drugs, anti-crime, anti-deprivation policy for our country’ (Gordon Brown cited in Lister 2006)
- Drew heavily from the ‘No Child Left Behind’ Act from the USA

- The murder of Victoria Climbie and the kidnap and murder of Holly and Jessica were two key events

- Now wanted all organisations to communicate to ensure all children were receiving these 5 important outcomes: - Be Healthy
- Stay Safe
- Enjoy and Achieve
- Make a Positive Contribution
- Achieve Economic Well-being

- Brought in Extended Schools
- The Equality Act 2010 simplifies the current laws regarding the protection of people from discrimination and combines them in one piece of legislation.

- The Socio-Economic duty is no longer included within the Equality Act 2010. The provision was opposed by the Conservative Party
- SureStart - the SureStart scheme has failed and is being largely shut down with the few that remain being unreachable to the disadvantaged families that need them due to either distance or the cost of keeping their child there.

- ECM – has both successes and failures:
successes – extended schools, breakfast clubs, healthy eating, brought a focus on the child rather than exam results & Roche and Tucker (2007) say it has provided the government with a framework for shaping practice

Failures – Baby P was still let down by the system just three years after ECM came into place, the change in roles created confusion, issues of data protection and confidentiality and an increase in the mistrust of people that work with children
SureStart Scheme
Every Child Matters
Equality Act 2010
Have the policies been successful?

- There are three types of Capital that are investigated in education;

Cultural Capital
- Which relates to the link between participation in ‘cultural activities’ and academic achievement.

- This focuses on how relationships can benefit pupils as support networks can be an important factor in levels of understanding.

- This focuses on the financial resources that parents and the pupils have access to which is a determiner of the pupil’s access to material resources required to help them in school.

- All three forms of capital can be directly related to the Every Child Matters (DfES, 2003) which ‘aims to maximise the potential of each every child. There is a case for arguing that results at a national level have reached a plateau and significant improvements in attainment levels are increasingly difficult to secure.’ (West-Burnham & Otero, 2013)
Beliefs and Definitions
- Bourdieu presents evidence that academic achievement can be linked to the amount of cultural activities pupils take part in such as visiting theatres and museums or even reading books.
- He believes that ‘due to the higher class children possessing more cultural capital, they find it easier to understand the teacher when they are discussing topics that children without cultural capital may struggle with.’(Sullivan, 2002)
- A study by DiMaggio (1982) used a self report method to test the correlation between cultural capital and achievement and found that ‘students with higher cultural capital scores reported significantly higher grades across all subjects’
Cultural Capital
Increasing cultural capital- There is currently a free admissions policy for certain museums which mean that it is free to visit permanent collections in museums that are funded by the government and also this policy applies to some university run museums with Manchester University’s museum being an example of a free museum.
Social Capital
Beliefs and Definitions
- ‘Statistically, the correlation between high social capital and positive child development is as close to perfect as social scientists ever find.’ (Putnam et al, 2000)
- There is no fixed definition of what Social Capital is; the key terms associated are ‘social networks’, ‘civic participation’ and ‘neighbourliness.’
- The Office for National Statistics (ONS) describes Social Capital as ‘evaluating the pattern and intensity of networks among people and the shared values which arise from those networks.’
- ‘The presence of two parents at home, a lower number of siblings, higher parental educational expectations, and intergenerational closure leads to lower incidents of dropping out of school.’ (Acar, 2011)
Relation and Learning Model
Increasing Social Capital

- One way to increase Social Capital could be to enlist the children who are lacking Social Capital onto the peer mentor programme.

- ‘Cross age tutoring and mentoring encouraged mentors and mentees to regard each other as surrogate siblings or extended family members.’ (Pringle, 1993)

- ‘Students showed improved social integration as evidenced by improved attendance, reduced disciplinary referrals, and improved student attitudes toward school.’ (Pringle, 1993)
Economic Capital
Beliefs and Definitions
- The amount of economic capital held by a person determines whether they have access to other types of capital (social and cultural capital).
- A high economic capital family can afford private lessons for their children and can also participate in activities where they can mix with other people (which increases social capital). Also, if the activity takes place in an educative setting, this will increase the cultural capital of the child.
Examples of how vital economic capital is in Education
- In 2012, university fees increased massively from approximately £3,500 to £9,000 and this caused a lot of protesting from not only current students, but those who were considering applying for university as the increased fees were unaffordable to them.
- Coughlan (2012) reported that the applications for university in 2012 had decreased 9.9% in England which was described as ‘far less dramatic as many were initially predicting. ’
Karl Marx 1818 - 1883

Key Founding thinker of Marxism. Co-founder Friedrich Engels.
Believed in the concept of class divides. He based this on economic structure. Bourgeoisie owed production, proletariat worked.

Although Marx never directly wrote about education it was his influences that brought other writers to come to these conclusions.

Louis Althusser (1971) the reason for education is to create an obedient workforce (taught to do as you're told).
Bowels and Ginitis (1976)
- Hidden curriculum
- There is social equality in education (its only a myth that if you work hard you can obtain high grades and top jobs)
Definition of of social class

OED - "a system of ordering society whereby people are divided into sets based on perceived social or economic status:"

Leninist - "..that a persons social class is determined not by the amount of his wealth, but by the source of his income as determined by his relation to labour and to the means of production..."

Landers - "Class is an aura of confidence that is being sure without being cocky. Class is nothing to do with money."
What are the three types of Capitals investigated in education?
What Policies have been put into place to address Social Class within education?
Restricted code and Elaborated code, who uses these?
Which members of Social Class achieve higher GCSE's?
How does this affect the policies in place to avoid class difference in education?
Parents now feel more involved in their child's school life with percentages rising from 29% in 2001 to 51% in 2007.
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