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Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Project
Transcript of Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Project
Heterotrophs are organisms that obtain organic food molecules by eating other organisms or substances derived from them. Examples include:
Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Respiration
Aerobic Respiration is a catabolic pathway for organic molecules, using oxygen (O ) as the final electron acceptor in an electron transport chain and ultimately producing ATP. This is the most efficient catabolic pathway and is carried out in most eukaryotic cells and many prokaryotic organisms.
Anaerobic Respiration is a catabolic pathway in which inorganic molecules other than oxygen accept electrons as the “downhill” end of electron transport chains.
A redox reaction is a chemical reaction involving the complete or partial transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; short for reduction-oxidation reaction.
The loss of electrons from one substance is called oxidation, and the addition of electrons to another substance is reduction.
Caribbean Reef Shark
Cellular Respiration Equation
Stages of Cellular Respiration
2. Pyruvate Oxidation and the Citric Acid Cycle
3. Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis
Glycolysis uses a glucose molecule, 2 NAD+, and 2 ATP to produce 2 three-carbon sugars (pyruvates), 2 NADH, and a net yield of 2 ATP.
Glycolysis produces 4 ATP molecules but uses 2 ATP molecules; therefore, the net yield is 2 ATP molecules.
It occurs in anaerobic conditions.
Substrate-level Phosphorylation is the enzyme-catalyzed formation of ATP by direct transfer of a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
2. Pyruvate Oxidation and the Citric Acid Cycle
2 Acetyl CoA, 6 NAD+, 2 FAD, and 2 ADP are used to produce 4 CO , 6 NADH, 2 FADH , and 2 ATP in the mitochondrial matrix.
Performed in aerobic conditions.
Acetyl CoA is the entry compound for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration. A pyruvate and 2 NAD+ form from an Acetyl CoA, a CO , and a NADH.
NAD+ and FADH are electron carriers that store electrons that are tranferred to the electron transport chain to continue metabolism.
3. Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron Transport & Chemiosmosis
10 NADH, 2 FADH , and O are used to produce 32-34 ATP, H O, 10 NAD+, and 2 FAD+ in the mitochondrial intermembrane space.
Occurs in aerobic conditions.
NADH and FADH are oxidized to NAD+ and FAD+. The energy released by the electron transport chain is used to power ATP Synthesis.
Chemiosmosis is an energy coupling mechanism (ATP Synthase) that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive the synthesis of ATP.
A proton-motive force is the potential energy stored in the form of a proton electrochemical gradient, generated by pumping hydrogen ions across a biological membrane during chemiosmosis.
In Anaerobic Conditions
If there is no oxygen, the pyrvate will continue its process in the cytoplasm during fermentation.
The pyruvate is reduced into another compound enabling glycolysis to keep functioning.
If bacteria or fungi, the pyruvate will be converted to ethanol in alcohol fermentation.
If animal, the pyruvate will be converted to lactate in lactic acid fermentation.
Obligate vs. Facultative Anaerobes
Obligate Anaerobes are organisms that carry out fermentation or anaerobic respiration. Such organisms cannot use oxygen and in fact may be poisoned by it.
Facultative Anaerobes are organisms that make ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to anaerobic respiration or fermentation if oxygen is not present.
Cellular Respiration Pathway
By: Noemi Tinajero
October 17, 2013
AP Bio 4th Period
An autotroph is an organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms. They use energy from the sun or from oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.
Cherry Blossom Tree
Cellular Respiration Images
Chemoautotroph / Photoautotroph / Mixotroph
A chemoautotroph is an organism that obtains energy by oxidizing inorganic substances and needs only carbon dioxide as a carbon source. It can survive in extreme environmental conditions.
A photoautotroph is an organism that harnesses light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide.
A mixotroph is an organism that is capable of both photosynthesis and heterotrophy.
Peak vs. Trough
The peak is the maximum point of the wave.
The trough is the minimum point of the wave.
At the peak of the wave, energy is only potential, while at the trough, energy is kinetic.
Energy increases from
has the highest energy because the wavelength becomes shorter.
In photosynthesis, the chloroplasts absorb violet-blue and red light and reflect green light. This gives the chloroplasts their green appearance making leaves appear
Chlorophyll a – a photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy.
Chlorophyll b – an accessory photosynthetic pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a.
Carotenoids – an accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants and in some prokaryotes. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis. Another function is photoprotection (absorb and dissipate excessive light energy that would otherwise damage chlorophyll or interact with oxygen forming reactive oxidative molecules that are dangerous to the cell.
Stages of Photosynthesis
1. Light Dependent Reactions
2. Calvin Cycle
Photophosphorylation is the process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of chemiosmosis, using a proton-motive force generated across the thylakoid membrance of the chloroplast or the membrane of certain prokaryotes during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
C3, C4, CAM Plants
Long Day vs. Short
A plant that requires a long period of darkness, is termed a "short day" plant. Short-day plants form flowers only when day length is less than about 12 hours. Many spring and fall flowering plants are short day plants.
Other plants require only a short night to flower. These are termed "long day" plants. These bloom only when they receive more than 12 hours of light. Many summer blooming flowers and garden vegetables are long day plants.
Magnesium (Mg) in Chlorophyll
A Magnesium (Mg) atom absorbs a photon of light. One of the Magnesium atom's electrons is excited where it has more potential energy. When the electron returns to its ground state, excess energy is released as heat. As excited electrons fall back to the ground
state, photons are given off.
The afterglow is called
Light Dependent Reactions
Light is used to drive the production of ATP and NADPH. Water provides electrons needed and is converted to oxygen gas as a waste product.
This occurs in the thylakoid membranes.
Excited electrons are transferred to the electron transport chain by electron carriers such as NADPH.
Calvin Cycle (Light Independent Reactions)
3 CO , 9 ATP, and 6 NADPH are used to produce a G3P, 9 ADP + Pi, and 6 NADP+
It occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast.
1. Carbon Fixation: RuBisCo mediates the transfer of a molecule of Carbon Dioxide onto a molecule of Ribulose Bisphospate
2. Reduction: ATP and NADPH are used to rearrange RUBP into PGAL (a three-carbon sugar)
3. Regeneration: ATP is used to reconstruct RuBP from PGAL
A photon strikes photosystem II and transfers the energy from one pigment molecule to another. P680 absorbs light with a wavelength of 680 nm. The electron is transferred from P680 to the primary electron acceptor.
Water is split into two electrons, two hydrogen ions, and an oxygen atom.
The electron passes from the primary electron acceptor of PS II to PS I by an electron transport chain.
The exergonic "fall" of electrons provides energy for the synthesis of ATP. Hydrogen ions are passed into the thylakoid lumen.
Light energy strikes photosystem I and excites P700. The electron from P700 is transferred to the primary electron acceptor.
The enzyme NADP+ reductase catalyzes the transfer of electrons.
As electrons are passed from carrier to carrier in redox reactions, hydrogen ions removed from the stroma are deposited in the thylakoid space, storing energy as a proton-motive force.
ATP is synthesized as the hydrogen ions diffuse from the thylakoid space back to the stroma side of the membrane through ATP Synthase.
Cyclic vs. Noncyclic Electron Flow
In cyclic electron flow, electrons move from photosystem I to the electron transport chain before returning to photosystem I.
It only produces ATP and does not require water.
In noncyclic electron flow, electrons move from photosystem II to photosystem I via the electron transport chain. From photosystem II, they are transferred to the enzyme NADP-Reductase which uses them to reduce NADP+ to NADPH.
It produces ATP and NADPH. It requires water.
Stomata and Guard Cells
Guard cells are cells surrounding each stoma. They help to regulate the rate of transpiration by opening and closing the stomata.
It regulates the exit of oxygen and entrance of carbon dioxide into the leaf.
To combat the problem of excess transpiration due to high temperatures, plants use the guard cells to close their stomata and conserve water.
A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.
A plant in which the Calvin cycle is preceded by reactions that incorporate CO into a four-carbon compound, the end product of which supplies CO for the Calvin cycle.
Bundle-sheath cells are arranged around the veins of the leaf. The Calvin cycle is confined to the chloroplasts of the bundle-sheath cells.
A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions. In this process, carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted to organic acids, which release CO for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed.
Their mesophyll cells store the organic acids in vacoules.
Reece, Jane B. , Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, and Robert B. Jackson. Campbell Biology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2011. 163-203. print.
C3 vs. C4
C4 vs. CAM