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Copy of Slavery Mind Map

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Kyuseok Shim

on 3 September 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Slavery Mind Map

beginnings of African Slavery
the African Slave Trade
The first African slaves arrived in Lisbon in 1444
most were sent to the sugar plantations on the Portuguese island colony of Madeira, off the coast of northern Africa
Columbus brought sugar cane to Hispaniola, and by 1600, some 25000 enslaved Africans labored on the plantations of Hispaniola and Brazil
most were captured by Africans, who were willing to exchanged the captured slaves for European commodities
English and French settles began constructing their own plantations and importing slaves
Caribbean sugar and slaves had, by then, become the centerpiece of the European colonial system
most slaves came from the long-established societies and local communities of West Africa
many were sophisticated farmers, based on farming systems many thousands of years old
slaves were common in West African societies, but they were treated as members of the family
the movement of Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas was the largest forced migration in world history
outnumbering European immigrants before the nineteenth century by the ration of six to one
slave ships transported from 10 to 12 million Africans to the Americans, 76 % arrived between 1701 and 1810
half were delivered to Dutch, French, or British sugar plantations in the Caribbean
about 600,000 slaves were transported to the British colonies of North America
with exception of the Seven Years' War, the slave trade continued to rise in importance in the decades before the Revolution
majority of captured and transported Africans were between the ages of 15 and 30
all the nations of western Europe participated in the slave trade
Holland became the most prominent slave-trading nation during the sugar boom of the 17th century
with the voyages of John Hawkins, The Royal African Company of England threw open the trade to independent merchants, the number of slaves shipped to North America skyrocketed
most were enslaved through warfare
as the demand for slaves skyrocketed, the raids to capture slaves extended deeper and deeper into the African interior
slaves in coffles were then forced to march to the coast, which would sometimes take 2 months
during 18th century, 500,000 were kidnapped from their homes
The Middle Passage
the trip from West Africa to the New World slave colonies
ships always carried more slaves then they were designed to
the trips took anywhere from 3 weeks to 3 months
The Slave Ship
crew rarely cleaned the holds, and so Africans were left to wallow in their own wastes
one in every six Africans perished
sales of slaves
by auction
prices set in advance, buyers would rush and seize their pick
death and destruction spread deep into the African interior
the development of North American Slave Societies
in 1700 slaves accounted for only 11% of the colonial population
that number rose to 20% by 1770
North America
the first Africans in Virginia arrived in 1619
Chesapeake was "society with slaves" but then turned into a "slave society"
as demand for tobacco increased, Chesapeake increased production
as proportions of slaves rose, colonist wrote slavery into law
the majority of Africans arrived during the 18th century
products made by slaves
demand for demand for tobacco increased for than tenfold
by 1750s about 80% of Chesapeake slaves were "country-born"
rice and indigo
The French Company of the Indies imported some 6,000 slaves and planters invested in tobacco and indigo plantations on the Mississippi River
after Natchez Rebellion, the Lousiana French pulled back from slavery
the South
Africans made the majority of the labor force, so in other words, they built the South
life of a slave
most were field hands
wore cloths that within months were reduced to mere rags
Family and communities
family was the most important institution for the development of African American community and culture
slave codes did not provide for legal slave marriages
planters commonly separated families by sale
kinship may have been one of the first devices enslaved Africans used to humanize the world of slavery
many African Americans were not converted to Christianity until the Great Awakening which happened in the 1760s
invention of an African American language was an important development
the African American community often looked to recently arrived africans for religious leadership and medical magic
dancing provided slaves with a unique opportunity to express themselves
violence and resistance
slavery was based on the use of brute force and violence
slaves mistreated tools and such to slow down production
slaves also ran away
they collected together in communities called "maroons"
most direct form of resistance was revolt
Chesapeake rebellion of 1730
Gabriel's Rebellion, the Denmark Vesey plot, and Nat Turner's Revolt
the slave colonies accounted for 95% of the exports from the Americas to Great Britain from 1714 to 1773
slaves were responsible for the economic success of the British Empire in the Americas
European imperial powers created a system of regulations that became known as mercantilim
major export in mid 18th century was South Carolina
the north
the prosperity of the south improved the living conditions for the residents of northern cities
The plantation life
wealthy planters had over 60% of the wealth
60% of farmers in the south owned their own farm
landless men constituted about 40% of the population
in 1691 Virginia prohibits interracial sexual contact
their presence also shaped southern society and culture
cotton became the dominate crop with the new industrializing world
the cotton gin is invented in 1793
by 1811, the south was producing 60 million pounds of cotton
profits to be made from cotton growing drew a rush of farmers into the black belt---western area of Georgia, alabama, and mississippi
this expansion came at the expense of the region's Indians population
expansion of cotton also meant expansion of slavery
export of cotton was the dynamic force in the developing American economy in the period 1790-1840
by the Civil War, 60% of American exports was cotton valued at $200 million each year
as cotton boomed, it provided capital for the factories of the South
on January 1, 1808, congress abolished the importation of slaves
south became a slave society, instead of a society with slaves
as a result, it lagged behind the North n industrialization and in canals and railroads
after that, slave labor force depended primarily on natural increase
in 1850, 55% of all slaves were engaged in cotton growing
Second Middle Passage
migration of slaves to the Southwest for cotton farming
a gang system was developed for the work
at harvest, 18 hour work days were common, in the winter they were only 10 hours
33% of female slaves in Virginia worked as house servants by 1800
bad for slaves since they could not see their own family
some slaves were skilled workers: weavers, seamstresses carpenters, blacksmith, and mechanics
the person themselves
the labor
slave women gave birth to six or eight children at year-and-a-half intervals
life expectancy for 1850 for slaves was 30-33 years
20% of slaves were sick at any one time on a plantation
at 12 slaves were considered full grown and put to work in the fields
20% of slave marriage were broken
33% of children were sold away
Second Great Awakening took root among black and white Southers in the 1790s intoducing many slaves to Christianity
slaves found in Christianity a powerful vehicle to express their longing for freedom and justice
Free African Americas
state legislatures tightened black codes--laws concerning free black people
by 1860, 250,000 free african americans lived in the south
yeoman is a farmer that works his own land
independence was more important then wealth
slavery linked large planters and yeoman farmers
2.5% of southern white people owned 50 or more slaves in 1830
36% of white people owned slaves in 1830
when husband was away, wife was in charge of the plantation but carried no real authority
of the 12 million people living in the South, 4 million were slaves
by 1860, only 5% of all slaves could read
gag rule was introduced to prevent congressional consideration of abolitionist petitions
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