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French Revolution

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on 18 February 2014

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Transcript of French Revolution

Economic crisis
Funding of Seven Years' War & American Revolution
No stable & successful means of raising money
Population growth

Discontent with Monarchy (Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette)
Monarchs seem extravagant & out of touch with people
"vote by order" rather than representation
May-June 1789: formation of National Assembly & Tennis Court Oath
July 14 1789: Bastille Day
Contributing Factors
French Revolution
Abolished feudalism & eliminated nobility's privilege
Declaration of the Rights of Man
some French citizens excluded
Constitutional monarchy established
limited king's power
uniform taxes
elected offices
Civil Constitution of Clergy (1790)
Declaration of Pillnitz
Europeans powers ban together against French Revolution
Led by Leopold II (HRE) & Marie-Antoinette's brother
Nearly universal male suffrage
National Assembly --> National Convention
September Massacres
Execution of Louis XVI
following escape attempt
Marie-Antoinette will later be executed
can't return to constitutional monarchy because king is dead.
Sept. 1792: constitutional monarchy/National Convention abolished & REPUBLIC established

Loses support of many people in Europe due to violence & lack of attention to individual rights
Robespierre = leader of Committee of Public Safety
Universal (white) male suffrage
Jacobin clubs: spread republican ideas
"republic of virtue" by any means necessary
high censorship
severe penalties (e.g.,death) for anyone suspected of being against revolution
Propaganda (e.g.; "La Marseillaise")
De-Christianization campaign
births, death, marriages registered with gov't -- not church.
Government (not church) schools
New calendar
Equal inheritance laws
Right to divorce granted
Spring-Summer 1794: "Great Terror"
July 1794: fall of Robespierre
Initial goal: establish constitutional monarchy
Aims: fair/moderate
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Phase 1: Constitutional Monarchy
Goal: defend revolution at all costs
very radical
Phase 2: Second Revolution
Phase 3: The Terror
Radical Change
Sans-Culottes Take the Lead
Significance of Second Revolution
National Assembly
Reaction in Europe
Goal: reinforce & defend revolution
beginning of radical turn
Full transcript