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The Polymerase Chain Reaction
Transcript of The Polymerase Chain Reaction
Since the temperature is being raised to levels that are higher than DNA (of humans and most other organisms) can replicate at, a supplementary polymerase was needed because the DNA polymerase that was already present would denature. Taq polymerase is added because it will not Thermocyler Continue to taq polymerase... Continue to thermocyclers... taq DNA Polymerase denature at the higher temperatures (Bowen, 1999) and therefore allows for the process of DNA replication to occur,even after it has passed extreme temperatures. This enzyme originates from a hot springs bacterium called Thermus Aquaticus (Bowen, 1999). It has since been commercialized for use in the PCR (polymerase chain reaction) process. Even though there are some concerns with the ethical values of PCR, there are far more potential benefits. These include disease research advancement, blood screening and genetic testing (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, 2012). With the application of PCR, a lot of progress has been made towards the study of infectious disease like HIV, HPV and tuberculosis (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, 2012). By having the ability to replicate the genomes involved with the diseases, researchers can more effectively study it without worrying about financing extensive amounts of test DNA. This means that research into these areas is not as cost prohibitive as it once was. Blood screening has also been improved with the use of PCR. This is due to the increased speed with which testable blood is available. Now, the DNA of the blood being tested can be quickly replicated rather than having to grow the samples in bacteria culture artificially. Lastly, PCR is used to provide safe genetic screening. Despite potential ethical concerns with genetic screening, PCR provides a method of safe screening by requiring only a very small sample in order to provide necessary volumes of DNA for testing. This has advanced the ability for doctors to diagnose genetic disorders in embryos. References
ayalush78 (Director). (2007). PCR [Motion Picture].
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Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. (2012). Polymerase Chain Reaction. Retrieved from DNA Learning Center: http://www.dnalc.org/resources/animations/pcr.html
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National Human Genome Reasearch Institute. (2012, February 27). Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Retrieved from National Human Genome Research Institute: National Institutes of Health: http://www.genome.gov/10000207
Otto, C. (1997). Ethical Issues of Genetic Screening. Retrieved from Ethical Issues of Genetic Screening: http://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~mcclean/plsc431/students/otto.html
Rice, G. (2012, November 27). Polymerase Chain Reaction. Retrieved from Microbial Life: http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/research_methods/genomics/pcr.html
Roche Molecular Diagnostics. (2012, November 10). Applications of PCR. Retrieved from Roche: http://molecular.roche.com/About/pcr/Pages/ApplicationsofPCR.aspx
Roche Molecular Diagnostics. (2012). Timeline of PCR and Roche. Retrieved from Roche Molecualr Diagnostics: http://molecular.roche.com/About/pcr/Pages/PCRTimeline.aspx