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Recognition of Prior Learning
Transcript of Recognition of Prior Learning
is a natural process.
‘[learning is] the combination of processes throughout a lifetime whereby the whole person (body and mind) has experiences, the content of which is then transformed cognitively, emotively or practically and integrated into the individual person's biography resulting in a continual changing (or more experienced) person’ (Jarvis 2010: 39)
What is it?
It works best where people work together with the aim of learning and help each other in the process
Learning is not all in the head! We need to actively engage in a process of change, using our mind, body, emotions, and experience.
So our role as educators then is to support this natural process
the learning process
Our role as teachers is to facilitate the learning process. We are not the gatekeepers to knowlege but builders, helping others to construct their knowledge
But are they learning?
We need to understand what is going on... the process
Experience can be good or bad - the great thing is, it can still lead to learning
The key to all learning is reflection
Write down two subjects you found easy or enjoyed at school and identify what it is that made them enjoyable...
Write down two subjects you did not enjoy at school and identify what it is that made you dislike them or made them difficult...
If learning is a natural process...
Measurement of learning?
However the measure is of outcomes ...
Outcomes are the measurable products that indicate learning has taken place. These are agreed by the institution as accurate measures when assessed using agreed appropriate processes (examinations, essays, reports, presentations)
We know that...
All assessed learning is (by definition) prior learning
What if we used
(different evidence of learning) and we used
different agreed processes
for assessing those outputs?
Specifying the Learning
In designing programmes we are used to identifying what it is we wish to teach - we used to call these learning
These were difficult to assess because they were wishes!
For assessment we needed statements of what successful students would have gained, the knowledge, skills and attitudes - we call these learning
We now had the tools to assess the learning not simply assume it has taken place.
How do we encourage it?
What we know changes who we are
What is a Diploma?
is not provided by an education or training institution and typically does not lead to certification. However, it is intentional on the part of the learner and has structured objectives, times and support.
results from daily activities related to work, family life or leisure. It is not structured and usually does not lead to certification. In most cases, it is unintentional on the part of the learner.
It allows learners to transfer between different types of courses e.g. from non-formal to more formal learning;
It prevents learners from having to repeat units if they have completed them elsewhere;
It allows learning to be recognised, even if full qualifications have not been achieved;
It allows combinations of units to be studied, which may more closely match the student’s individual learning requirements
one credit = 10 learning hours
So... is formal learning any different to non-formal or informal?
Has had the accreditation of Prior Learning in UK Higher Education since 1990s
Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) became interested in recognising non-formal learning as a route for those with relevant knowledge and experience but no traditional qualifications to gain access to higher education. The majority of universities and some further education training providers in the UK have APL at either institution or departmental levels, or both.
In September 2004, the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education published a set of guidelines to support Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in accrediting prior learning
Decisions regarding the accreditation of prior learning are a matter of academic judgement.
The decision-making process and outcomes should be transparent and demonstrably rigorous and fair.
The implications for progression, the award of any interim qualification and the classification or grading of a final qualification should be clear and transparent.
Prior experiential and/or certificated learning that has been accredited by a provider should be clearly identified on students' transcripts.
Providers should provide clear information
Assessment should be appropriate to claims for the recognition of learning.
The criteria used in judging a claim should be explicitly stated.
The assessment of learning derived from experience should generally be subject to the same internal and external quality assurance procedures as assessment of learning through more traditional routes.
All associated with the accreditation of prior learning should have their roles clearly and explicitly defined.
Guiding Principles for APL
100% - Guidance for students on APL
75% - written guidelines (25% not)
50% - designated advisers
50% - APEL module
35% - APEL module with credit
25% - formal training of admissions staff
support on how to reflection on experience
advice on nature, scope and sufficiency
– relating to the match between the evidence presented and the learning outcomes claimed
– relating to sufficient breadth of evidence, including reflection, to demonstrate the achievement of all the outcomes claimed
– demonstrating that what is being assessed is current learning
– relating to the evidence demonstrating the required level of learning achievement.
can be tailored to employer
At Bradford a maximum of 50% can be through APL
MA/MSc Professional Studies
A shell programme with no content
Content provided by the professional context
Masters level modules in...
developing and analysing data
reviewing and critically analysing information
application of advanced learning for personal development
Assessing Prior Learning
Not a cheap process - 50% of normal cost
What HEIs do
What Have We Learned