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The Odyssey

A project for Mr.Bell's class
by

Dalaena Rivera

on 16 May 2013

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Transcript of The Odyssey

The Odyssey The Odyssey The Road to Home 1. What does Calypso do to help Odysseus? 2. Where does Odysseus want to go? 3. What does Odysseus do to the Cyclops? 4. What dangers are posed by the Sirens, Scylla, and Charybdis? 5. What happens when Odysseus reaches the island of the sun god, Helios? 6. How is Odysseus disguised when he meets his son, Telemachus? 7. Who recognizes Odysseus even though he is disguised? 8. Who are the unwelcome people living in Odysseus' palace? 9. What test does Penelope give her visitors? 10. How does Odysseus convince Penelope that he is her husband? Odysseus wants to return to his home in Ithaca where his wife and son are living. Odysseus stakes the Cyclops (Polyphemus) in the eye with a sharpened olive tree branch. He first drunkened Polyphemus and when he was sleeping, Odysseus attacks him. The unwelcome people in Odysseus's house were all of Penelope's suitors. The First Step Calypso helps Odysseus by helping him build a raft. Odysseus is disguised as a beggar when he meets his son. The visitors must string Odysseus's bow and shoot an arrow through twelve axes consecutively. The sirens would serenade and bewitch those who listened. Scylla haunts the seas and takes from passing ships. Charybdis creates whirl pools by spewing and sucking in ocean water. When Odysseus reaches the island of the sun god, he grazes on Helios's cattle. Helios gets upset and threatens to stop the sun from shining and instructs Odysseus to pay him back. In return, Zeus sinks Odysseus's ship and alone Odysseus goes to the island of Ogygia. (And the first 10 Questions) (And questions 11-18) A Second Helping 11. What does Odysseus learn about his mother when he visits the land of the dead? Odysseus's mother died of a broken heart because she thought that he died. 12. What happens when Odysseus' men are tempted by food? Give one example from the poem. When Odysseus' men are tempted by food, they usually get themselves into lots of trouble. For example, when they visted the island that Lord Helios lived on, they ate his cattle and in return Zeus sunk their ship and killed all of the men. 13. How does Circe both hinder and help Odysseus? Include an example of each from the poem. Circe hinders Odysseus by turning all of his men into pigs, putting all of them in a trance, and keeping them with her for a year. She helps Odysseus by giving him advice about all the dangers he will face when he returns home. 14. Why does Odysseus weep when he visits the land of the dead? Include two details from the poem in your response. Odysseus weeps for Elpenor (one of his men) because they left him unburied and unmourned at Circe's island. Odysseus also wept when he saw his mother, Anticlea, in the land of the dead. 15. What does Telemachus learn about his mother when he returns to Ithaca in Book 16: Father and Son? Telemachus learns that his mother in still unmarried and grieves night and day for her husband to return home. 16. What does Odysseus show to his servants to prove who he is? Odysseus shows his servants a scar from a tusk wound on his leg to prove who he is. 17. What does Odysseus believe the thunder means as he holds the bow? Odysseus believes that the thunder was an omen and the gods were on his side. 18. Briefly summarize the events in the Great Hall during Book 22: Death in the Great Hall Odysseus, Telemachus, and two of his herdsmen use the bows and swords to kill the suitors and unloyal servants in the Great Hall. Three Times the Charm With Guest Appearance: Questions 19 and 20 19. One characteristic of an epic plot is that the gods interfere in human affairs. Identify two examples of godly interference in the excerpt from the 'Odyssey'. Athena interferes by turning Odysseus into a beggar and then back into himself. Another example is after Odysseus reveals his true self to Penelope the townspeople get angry at him for killing all of the suitors in the Great Hall. The townspeople decide to fight Odysseus, but Athena steps in and makes peace among them all. 20. How is Penelope an archetype for a good wife? Provide an example from this excerpt. Penelope is an archetype for a good wife by being loyal to Odysseus. For example, even when Odysseus reveals himself to her, she was still skeptical about who he was. When Athena changed Odysseus back into himself she made him better looking than he was before, and in return Penelope didn't trust that it was really Odysseus because she was so loyal to him. She still remembered how he looked 20 years ago when he left for war. Penelope didn't run off with another man unlike Helen of Argos. Argos, Odysseus dog, recognizes Odysseus even though he is disguised. Odysseus convices Penelope that he is her husband by scolding her for moving his bed that he had built himself from the olive tree trunk. The bed was unmoveable and the embellishments done to it could have only been done by Odysseus. This was the secret that they had shared and when revealed, Penelope knew that he was Odysseus. Four Steps Closer (And Questions 21 and 22) 21. What role does the theme of loyalty play in this excerpt from the 'Odyssey'? Use one example from the text to support your answer. Created by Dalaena Rivera of Period 2 When Odysseus revealed himself to Penelope, she still didn't believe him. This shows that even if someone were to play Odysseus she wouldn't fall for it and would be loyal to Odysseus. Penelope talked about remembering the way Odysseus left and when being in the presence of the real Odysseus that had his appearance improved, she noticed the changes and knew that the man couldn't be Odysseus. 22. What archetype does Helen of Argos represent in this excerpt from the Odyssey? Use one detail from the text to support your answer. Helen of Argos represents an unloyal wife. I know this because Penelope asked if Helen of Argos would have slept with a stranger if she knew that she would return back to her home and husband. Helen is the reason why the war started when she left her husband for another man. Five Golden Rings (Featuring Questions 23 and 24) 23. As an epic hero, Odysseus sometimes shows extreme self-confidence. How does this trait cause trouble for him when he reaches the Cyclops' island? Desccribe one example, using details from the poem. Once he reaches the island of the Cyclope, Odysseus and his men are captured and Odysseus must escape. He escapes by outsmarting Polyphemus and telling him that his name is "Nohbdy". While sailing away, Odysseus wanted the "monster" to know that he, a puny mortal, had blinded and tricked a dangerous beast. 24. What kind of person is Penelope? Use details from the poem to describe at least two of her character traits. Penolpe is very loving person. I know this because on page 1144, it states that she would spend her nights and days grieving for Odysseus, even after twenty years. She is also very clever in the fact that when Odysseus was trying to convince her that he was himself, she slyly revealed a secret that only Odysseus would know the truth to. Thus, revealing the true identity of Odysseus. The Sixth Sense (Starring Questions 25 and 26) 25. In addition to the desire to return home and family, what motivated Odysseus and his men on their journey? Support your answer with details from the poem. Odysseus wants to return home to save his own life and the life of his shipmates. He also wants to prove to the gods and to those people who've doubted him that he was strong enough to return home. His self-confidence fueled his desire to get home. Odysseus, a mere mortal, could get past a Cyclops and survive Sirens and escape from Circe. Odysseus also wanted to get back home to fulfill the promise of burying Elepenor. 26. Challenge: Do you think that Odysseus does or does not show respect for the values and traditions of his cultures? Support your opinion with examples from this poem. I think that Odysseus does show respect for his traditions and cultures. When Odysseus and his men were waiting for the Cyclops to enter the cave, they lit a fire and made an offering to the gods. The offering was done frequently by sailors to secure the god's goodwill. To get on the Cyclops's good side, Odysseus mentioned the custom of honoring visitors by giving them gifts and food. He knew about the custom and he used it to his advantage. While visiting the land of the dead, Odysseus sacrificed the lamb and ewe to calm the nations of the dead. Lucky Seven 27. How do the servants' character traits influence the story when Odysseus comes home? Use details from the poem to support your answer. Eumaeus's (the swineherd) kind heart, allows for Odysseus to stay with him instead of staying at the suitor filled palace. Eumaeus fills Odysseus in with all of the things that have been happening in Ithaca and gives the beggar food and shelter even though he doesn't know that the beggar is Odysseus. The loyal Philoetius, a cowherd, helped Odysseus by locking the doors to the Great Hall. He and Eumaeus were the ones Odysseus trusted and were the ones to help prep for the scene in the Great Hall. They also were there to help fight the suitors with Odysseus. Eurycleia, also a loval servant, kept Odysseus secret when she recognized Odysseus from his scar. 28. Challenge: Does Athena play a vital role in Odysseus's homecoming, or could he have accomplished everything on his own? Use details from the poem to explain your opinion. Odysseus couldn't of made it home without Athena's help. Without Athena telling him that the island he was on was Ithaca, Odysseus would've kept on sailing and would've gotten lost again. Athena was the person who disguised Odysseus as a beggar to protect him from all of Penelope's suitors. If Odysseus was not disguised he probably would've gotten killed by the suitors before he reached Penelope. In the beginning of the poem, Athena was appealing to Zeus to help Odysseus. She helped Odysseus during the Great Hall scene by protecting him from the suitors' attacks. Athena gave Odysseus advice and helped him become more confident in whatever he was doing. 29. What do Odysseus's heroic traits tell you about the values of Homer's world? Support your answer with three details from this excerpt from the 'Odyssey'. The Crazy Eight Ball (Questions 27 and 28) (Featuring Questions 29 and 30) One of the heroic traits Odysseus has is the gift of craftsmanship. Odysseus states that he had "built the walls and roof, gave it a doorway with smooth-fitting doors." He "lopped off the silvery leaves and branches" and "inlaid them all with silver, gold, and ivory". Another of Odysseus's traits is that he is strong. This is mentioned when he talks about making the bed. He says, "No mortal in his best days could move it with a crowbar". Odysseus also exhibits perseverance the way he never gave up on finding his way home. This is shown when he asks, "Who else in the world would keep aloof as you do from her husband if he returned to her from years of trouble, cast on his own land of the twentieth year?" All of Odysseus's traits tell me that Homer's world valued people who were skilled and had craftsmanship, who were physically strong, and those who exhibited perseverance. 30. Challenge: Epic heroes often have serious flaws. Explain how Odysseus's flaws lead to his actions. Include three specific references to this excerpt from the 'Odyssey' in your respnse. One of Odysseus's flaws is that he is very arrogant. The first time in 20 years, after being surrounded by distrustful suitors, Odysseus expects Penelope to come running into his arms. When she doesn't, he calls her cold-hearted. Odysseus is also egotistical. After Penelope says that she moved his bed, Odysseus excaims to her, "Who dared moved my bed? No builder had the skill for that-unless a god came down to turn the trick". He kept saying that only a god could have such skills as he does. Odysseus is also stubborn. Penelope didn't believe Odysseus when he first showed her who he was and after her reaction, Odysseus didn't want to leave her until she believed him. He asked for the nurse to make him a bed so he didnt have to leave. (Rectangle) "I am a writer of books in retrospect. I talk to understand; I teach in order to learn." -Robert Frost Write a subject analysis of the theme of loyalty in the 'Odyssey'. As Robert Frost's message suggests, you will learn about the theme of loyalty while you explain why it is important. Draw your conclusions about loyalty and its importance based on your own knowledge and your experience in reading this epic. Use evidence from this epic to support your thesis. Servants, Penelope, and Odysseus are the ways that loyalty was expressed in The Odyssey. Servants expressed loyalty in the 'Odyssey'. Eumaeus. a swineherd, "fell to praying all to heaven for his return" which shows that he was desperately hoping for Odysseus to return home. Philoetius, a cowherd, and Eumaeus kept Odysseus's secret and prepped the Great Hall after Odysseus had asked them to. The Death in the Great Hall scene was when all of the unloyal suitors and unloyal servants were killed. Even after 20 years, they still respected and obeyed Odysseus. What is being learned from this action is that being loyal will be rewarded because all the unloyal people were killed while the loyal people got to survive. Penelope also expressed loyalty in the 'Odyssey'. Penelope would grieve and cry for Odysseus every night that he was gone. She didn't fall in love with anyone else and still remembered Odysseus. Even when presented with the real Odysseus, Penelope did not trust him because she knew that it could've easily been a trick. She still remembered Odysseus the day he left and the Odysseus standing in front of her didn't match her mental picture. "There is no pride on my part nor scorn for you- not even wonder, merely. I know so well how you-how he- appeared boarding the ship for Troy." From this, you learn that being loyal is one of the most valuable traits in a person because it inspires them to do things that show the other person they care. Odysseus expressed loyalty in the 'Odyssey'. He, after twenty long years, did not give up hope in finding his way home. After facing Cyclops, Circe, Calypso, Lord Helios, Scylla, the Lotus Eaters, Charybdis, and the Sirens, Odysseus kept pushing forward to get back to Ithaca. After being offered immortality from Calypso, Odysseus chose to stay mortal with Penelope. " Yet it is true, each day I long for home, long for the sight of home..." You learn that staying loyal to somebody is more important than bettering yourself. Odysseus gave up immortality to stay with his wife. Home is Where the He rt Is <3 (And Question 31) "Home is where I belong with you!" -Edward Sharpe and the Magnetic Zeros Home! One final step and we are... (The End)
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