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Ch. 7 EDUC 111

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Transcript of Ch. 7 EDUC 111

New England Primer 1690
New England “Dame” school, 1719
Pilgrims, Puritans, and New England
Education in New England
Tobacco cultivation at Jamestown
1635 Boston Latin Grammar School is founded

1636 Harvard College is founded

1642 Massachusetts Act of 1642, the first education law, is passed

1647 The Old Deluder Satan Act is passed in Massachusetts

1690 New England Primer is first published
Significant Events of the 1600s

1607 First permanent English settlement in America (Jamestown, VA)

1619 Black slaves first brought to colonies

1620 Pilgrims land at Provincetown, MA

1620 In Plymouth, MA, the Mayflower Compact is signed – the first democratic constitution in America
Significant Events of the 1600s
Before the colonists won their independence from the British (1776), education served mainly to prepare an individual to live a godly life and confirm and confer status.
The major goal of education was to ensure that the public knew how to read the bible, other religious works, and the law
This will change after the American Revolution, as many believe public education is needed to build nationalism, create good citizens, reform society
Summary of Colonial Education
Hornbook
Jamestown, the Chesapeake, and the South
Education in the Chesapeake/South
Colonization and Cultural Transplantation 1607-1776
Education is still considered by some to be a means of preparing children to obey
People think education can function to create a social utopia (no crime, poverty, immorality, etc.)
Education is believed by some as a means to maintain social class differences
Themes in Colonial Education
Putting today into perspective
The growing pains of a new nation were evident in the 1800s as countrymen fought countrymen in the Civil War.

The 1900s saw a nation that had become so strong that it influenced world events both in peace and in war.

As you consider our educational history, you might ask yourself what theme will emerge from the 21st century.
Education in America
Each of the four centuries of education in America can be considered in light of the social struggles during that period.

In the 1600s the struggle was between an emerging social order and a frontier territory.

During the 1700s the newly established society sought to declare its autonomy from England and embrace its own sovereignty.
Education in America
Rather than simply reading another recounting of selected events and the description of various key figures in the progress of education, try to see how dynamic events in their own time contribute to the dynamic nature of education today.

As you study the people and events that have molded contemporary education, ask yourself what lessons we have learned and what lessons we seem to have difficulty learning.
Introduction
Maybe our educational family tree looks more like this?
Culture and religion as central themes in educational history
Schools as one form of ideological management
Inequality as a central issue of American and educational history
Economic goals and their impact on education
Consumerism and environmental issues are pressing concerns in education today
Framework for the history of American Education


“If you don’t know history it’s like you were born yesterday and you’ll believe anything anyone tells you.”
Howard Zinn
Chapter Quotation
Chapter 7

A History of American Education
Ebert and Culyer
School: An Introduction to Education
3rd edition
NCLB
Violence
Social class
Re-segregation
Standards
Accountability
Funding
Diversity
21st Century skills
Globalization

Struggle for equity

Economic goals

Ideological Mgmt.
Themes of American Schooling

Culture/religion
Pestalozzi (1746-1827)
Tested Rousseau’s ideas. Believed that children pass through a number of stages of development.
Teachers need to appeal to all the senses rather than relying on verbal instruction
Froebel (1782-1852)
Founded the 1st kindergarten in 1837 in Germany
Children learned through educational games and activities.
Children were not lumps of clay, but needed time and nurturing to grow according to natural law.
New ideas were also showing up in American education.

Johann Pestalozzi, a Swiss educator, recommended an education that addressed the “whole child” rather than just the academic aspects of memorization and skill development.

The German educator Friedrich Froebel had a profound impact on the structure of education at the time with his introduction of the kindergarten, a “garden where children grow.”
New Ideas for Schooling Emerge

1779 Jefferson proposes Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge

1783 Noah Webster publishes the American Spelling Book

1787 The African Free School is established in NYC
Significant People and Events of the 1700s
The federal government did enter the educational arena shortly after the conclusion of the Revolutionary War.

In 1785 the Land Ordinance Act was passed, followed two years later by the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. These articles of legislation indicated that “Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged.”

To that end, the law stated that every township established in the Northwest Territories (what we now know of as the territory from Ohio to Minnesota) was to be divided into 36 sections, one of which was to be set aside for public schools.
The Federal Government Addresses Education

It became evident in the post revolution years that a system of education that would bind the nation together was essential.

A clear voice in that call was a familiar one: Thomas Jefferson wanted to see a program of educational opportunity that extended beyond the social elite. The proposal considered only academic progress and not wealth or social station. The proposal was not well received.
Post-Revolutionary War: Education for a New Nation
Ben Franklin engraving, 1805
English Grammar School As a response and alternative to the Latin Grammar School, this secondary school emphasized a practical education with classes conducted in English rather than in Latin. Some English Grammar Schools admitted females.

Once there were two variations of secondary schooling, a third was bound to emerge combining qualities of both. That newer version was referred to as an academy. Still considered to be private venture schools, the academy concept embodied the best of both educational worlds.

The Philadelphia Academy was established in 1751 by Benjamin Franklin. We know it today as the University of Pennsylvania.
Secondary Schools Evolve
By the 1700s, surviving in the American territory had given way to growing the colonial economy. The colonies were now a network of functioning towns, cities, and states.

Though the influence of religion continued, the school curriculum began to feel the pressures for offering a more practical education.
The New Nation (1700s)
For a democratic government to survive, it was necessary that the populace be capable of making intelligent decisions.

McGuffey Readers Six volumes written by the Reverend William H. McGuffey and published from 1836 to the early 20th century. Poems and stories emphasized honesty, truth, obedience, and hard work. Their message of moral virtue influenced generations of Americans.
The Utilitarian Value of Education

Noah Webster (1758–1843) believed that a common American language was necessary to bind people together as countrymen and to create their own national identity apart from Great Britain.

In 1783 he published the American Spelling Book. The small book is considered by many to be the most successful schoolbook ever written, selling over 100 million copies. The book included moral lessons, word lists, and pronunciation guides.
Post-Revolutionary War: Education for a New Nation
Thomas Jefferson

1704 Elias Neau starts a school in NYC for African American and Native American students

1717 Cotton Mather establishes School for Slaves in Massachusetts

1751 The Philadelphia Academy is founded

1773 Anthony Benezet opens School for Slaves and Free African Americans in Pennsylvania
Significant People and Events of the 1700s
Drawing of an “Old Field” School in North Carolina during the 1860s.
Endowed Free School 1856
1857 The National Education Association (NEA) was formed

1862 The Morrill Act provides land to states for A&M arts

1869 First public normal school opens in Lexington, MA

Susan Blow opens first public kindergarten

Michigan courts rule that the public should fund public high schools

1877 Jim Crow laws legally separate life for whites and blacks in the South
Significant People and Events of the 1800s


In 1874 the courts ruled in a Kalamazoo, Michigan, case that leaving a gap between publicly funded elementary schools and publicly funded universities made no sense. It was determined that high school be funded with tax dollars as well.
Governmental Influence in Education Broadens

Mann argued for schooling especially designed to teach people to be teachers. Patterned after the French école normale, normal schools were professional programs of teacher education that included instruction in pedagogy, new teaching methods, and even the management of children as opposed to the routine use of corporal punishment.
New Advocacy for Education
normal schools The forerunners of teacher-preparation colleges and universities. They taught their prospective teachers the normal practices for teaching children.

Normal schools existed in New England as early as 1823. The first public normal school in the United States was opened in Lexington, Massachusetts, in 1869.

In 1881 Booker T. Washington was called upon to become the principal for an African American normal school. Washington, who had been born a slave, found that the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama lacked a physical plant, was virtually without students, and had very little community support.
Normal Schools for Preparing Teachers
Though enrollment of African American children in school had increased, after 1877 the passage of the “Jim Crow” laws effectively separated African Americans from mainstream opportunities in virtually all aspects of life.

The doctrine of “separate but equal” withstood a Supreme Court challenge in 1896.

By the middle of the 19th century, Hispanics represented a new cultural influence in the United States. Unfortunately, the road to equal educational opportunities for Hispanic children has been much like that of Native Americans and African Americans.
Educational Opportunities were not Equal for All
Unfortunately, the cause of education for African Americans did not proceed with the same enthusiasm.

In Canterbury, Connecticut, in 1833, a white school teacher named Prudence Crandall began providing schooling to African American girls. The villagers poisoned her well, tried to burn down the house, and essentially stormed the school—forcing it to shut down.

When the parents of Sarah Roberts sought to have her admitted to a white school in Boston in 1850. The Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled that “equal, but separate” schools were available for her to attend (Roberts v. City of Boston, 1850).
Educational Opportunities were not Equal for All
The school curriculum expanded with courses in geography, history, natural science, and government, because good citizenship required a broader and more well-rounded education.

The business model of top-down management, derived from the work of Frederick Taylor, founder of scientific management, also found its way into the schools. This approach to school administration has remained in place ever since.
Changes in Curriculum and School Administration
1881 Booker T. Washington becomes principal of first normal school for blacks

1890 Second Morrill Act prohibits discrimination against non-whites unless separate but equal facilities are provided

1892 Committee of Ten on secondary studies

1893 Committee of Fifteen on elementary school curriculum

1896 Plessy v. Ferguson - Supreme Court upholds doctrine of separate but equal
Significant People and Events of the 1800s
1821 First publicly supported high school is established in the U.S.

1833 Angry townspeople storm Prudence Crandall’s School for African American Girls

1836 The McGuffey Reader is published

1837 Horace Mann becomes secretary to the first State Board of Education

1850 The Massachusetts Supreme Court denies Sarah Robert’s right to attend a white school in Boston
Significant People and Events of the 1800s
There was likely no greater advocate for the schooling of all children during the 1800s than Horace Mann.

In 1837 he helped to form the first state board of education and subsequently became its secretary, a position equivalent to state superintendent of education.

In Mann’s view, all children should receive a quality education that prepared them for effective citizenship. The building blocks for such a common school were available, but it was a hard sell.
New Advocacy for Education
common schools Free schools for the working-class students, both girls and boys.

The movement toward common schools that would occupy the entire century sought to bridge the gap between elementary school and higher education opportunities.

The first publicly supported high school was established in Boston in 1821. Once again, the school was for boys. Though five years later a similar school was opened for girls.

It was not until 1852 that a high school for girls was able to sustain itself.
More Educational Opportunities and the Common Schools
Drawing of an “Old Field” School in North Carolina during the 1860s.
Endowed Free School 1856
1857 The National Education Association (NEA) was formed

1862 The Morrill Act provides land to states for A&M arts

1869 First public normal school opens in Lexington, MA

Susan Blow opens first public kindergarten

Michigan courts rule that the public should fund public high schools

1877 Jim Crow laws legally separate life for whites and blacks in the South
Significant People and Events of the 1800s
1821 First publicly supported high school is established in the U.S.

1833 Angry townspeople storm Prudence Crandall’s School for African American Girls

1836 The McGuffey Reader is published

1837 Horace Mann becomes secretary to the first State Board of Education

1850 The Massachusetts Supreme Court denies Sarah Robert’s right to attend a white school in Boston
Significant People and Events of the 1800s


In 1874 the courts ruled in a Kalamazoo, Michigan, case that leaving a gap between publicly funded elementary schools and publicly funded universities made no sense. It was determined that high school be funded with tax dollars as well.
Governmental Influence in Education Broadens

Mann argued for schooling especially designed to teach people to be teachers. Patterned after the French école normale, normal schools were professional programs of teacher education that included instruction in pedagogy, new teaching methods, and even the management of children as opposed to the routine use of corporal punishment.
New Advocacy for Education
There was likely no greater advocate for the schooling of all children during the 1800s than Horace Mann.

In 1837 he helped to form the first state board of education and subsequently became its secretary, a position equivalent to state superintendent of education.

In Mann’s view, all children should receive a quality education that prepared them for effective citizenship. The building blocks for such a common school were available, but it was a hard sell.
New Advocacy for Education
normal schools The forerunners of teacher-preparation colleges and universities. They taught their prospective teachers the normal practices for teaching children.

Normal schools existed in New England as early as 1823. The first public normal school in the United States was opened in Lexington, Massachusetts, in 1869.

In 1881 Booker T. Washington was called upon to become the principal for an African American normal school. Washington, who had been born a slave, found that the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama lacked a physical plant, was virtually without students, and had very little community support.
Normal Schools for Preparing Teachers
Common schools Free schools for the working-class students, both girls and boys.

The movement toward common schools that would occupy the entire century sought to bridge the gap between elementary school and higher education opportunities.

The first publicly supported high school was established in Boston in 1821. Once again, the school was for boys. Though five years later a similar school was opened for girls.

It was not until 1852 that a high school for girls was able to sustain itself.
More Educational Opportunities and the Common Schools
Though enrollment of African American children in school had increased, after 1877 the passage of the “Jim Crow” laws effectively separated African Americans from mainstream opportunities in virtually all aspects of life.

The doctrine of “separate but equal” withstood a Supreme Court challenge in 1896.

By the middle of the 19th century, Hispanics represented a new cultural influence in the United States. Unfortunately, the road to equal educational opportunities for Hispanic children has been much like that of Native Americans and African Americans.
Educational Opportunities were not Equal for All
Unfortunately, the cause of education for African Americans did not proceed with the same enthusiasm.

In Canterbury, Connecticut, in 1833, a white school teacher named Prudence Crandall began providing schooling to African American girls. The villagers poisoned her well, tried to burn down the house, and essentially stormed the school—forcing it to shut down.

When the parents of Sarah Roberts sought to have her admitted to a white school in Boston in 1850. The Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled that “equal, but separate” schools were available for her to attend (Roberts v. City of Boston, 1850).
Educational Opportunities were not Equal for All
The school curriculum expanded with courses in geography, history, natural science, and government, because good citizenship required a broader and more well-rounded education.

The business model of top-down management, derived from the work of Frederick Taylor, founder of scientific management, also found its way into the schools. This approach to school administration has remained in place ever since.
Changes in Curriculum and School Administration
1881 Booker T. Washington becomes principal of first normal school for blacks

1890 Second Morrill Act prohibits discrimination against non-whites unless separate but equal facilities are provided

1892 Committee of Ten on secondary studies

1893 Committee of Fifteen on elementary school curriculum

1896 Plessy v. Ferguson - Supreme Court upholds doctrine of separate but equal
Significant People and Events of the 1800s
The 1983 National Commission for Excellence in Education report was a wake-up call for American education.

Among its recommendations were:
(1) more academic course requirements for all high school students,
(2) more rigorous college entrance requirements,
(3) upgraded textbooks,
(4) longer school days and longer school years, and
(5) the “new” basics—four years of English, three years of mathematics, three years of science, three years of social studies, and one-half year of computer science.


See TeachSource Video Case 8.1 Integrating Internet Research: High School Social Studies
A Nation at Risk Raises Concerns about the Condition of American Education

W.E.B. DuBois campaigned for the education of the “Talented Tenth” among African Americans who would correspondingly become business and political leaders.


In 1837 Horace Mann helped to form the first state board of education.
Conclusion
In ancient Greece, education was provided to boys but not provided to girls, slaves, or noncitizens. Grammar, reading, and writing laid the foundation for intellectual development; music fostered aesthetic appreciation.

As variations of the Christian faith developed, so did diverse perspectives on the purpose of education, curriculum, and the language in which school should be conducted.

The Massachusetts Act of 1647—known as The Old Deluder Satan Act— required every town of 50 or more households to establish a school and hire a teacher. Towns of 100 or more households were also required to establish a Latin Grammar School to prepare students for university study.
Conclusion
If history is our guide, what might we expect for the future of organized education?

A) It will be essentially the same as it is today. The process and content has endured for thousands of years.

B) The process of educating children, and the content that is taught, will be very different from what we know today.

Whichever response you choose, what benefits do you see for education?
What is Your Opinion?
1974 Lau v. Nichols – U.S. Supreme Court rules that schools must provide with special instruction as necessary to ensure an equal educational opportunity

1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act passed

1983 A Nation at Risk is published

1994 Goals 2000: The Educate America Act establishes goals for improving education

1996 Getting Students Ready for the Twenty-First Century: Meeting the Technology Literacy Challenge is published by U.S. Department of Education
Significant Events of the 1900s

1955 Courts order desegregation to proceed with “all deliberate speed.”

Soviet Union launches Sputnik

1964 National Defense Education Act extended and broadened

1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act passed

1968 ESEA amended to include bilingual education
Significant Events of the 1900s
In 1964 Congress extended the act and added funding for curriculum development in reading, English, geography, and civics.

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 provided funding for programs aimed at disadvantaged children. Head Start, Upward Bound, and the Job Corps, all of which are ancillary to the traditional K–12 curriculum, were established to fight the War on Poverty.

The 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act was amended in 1968 with Title VII. Hispanic, Native American, and eventually Asian children representing a wide variety of languages were provided support for what has become bilingual education offered to children “of limited English speaking ability.”
Education Becomes a Matter of National Defense
The Second Half of the 20th Century
The post–World War II years were marked by a feeling of invincibility, a virtual explosion of knowledge from wartime research and development, the “factory” model of production, and the “baby boom.”

The early 1950s brought the anticommunist activities led by Senator Joseph McCarthy and the Korean conflict.

There arose questions not only about declining test scores but also of the role of school and especially the inequities associated with segregation.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) signaled the need for change more than it signaled desegregation.
In 1919 the Progressive Education Association (PEA) was founded with the purpose of reforming education. In particular, the progressivists believed that:

(1) children should be free to develop naturally,
(2) work that interests the child will be naturally motivating,
(3) the teacher is a guide,
(4) student development must be measured scientifically,
(5) health and physical education must be addressed,
(6) the school and the home must work together, and
(7) progressive schools must take the lead in trying new ideas.
The Progressivist Movement Begins
As the 20th century began, John Dewey’s work in educational pragmatism became known as progressive education.

He combined his knowledge of psychology with a pragmatic philosophy arguing that, for a child, school is not a preparation for life but is life. Therefore, education ought to be relevant to the life of the child.
The Progressivist Movement Begins
In the 1900s the United States was not only a sovereign country, but within a decade or two it would assume “superpower” status among the nations of the world.

The launching of the Soviet satellite, Sputnik, is important because it prompted a national call for change in our public schools in the name of national defense.

On the domestic front, much of the momentum for educational reform stemmed from the 1954 United States Supreme Court decision in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, which rejected the constitutionality of “separate but equal” schools and, in a separate ruling in 1955, required integration “with all deliberate speed.”
Education in 20th Century America

John Dewey’s work in educational pragmatism eventually became known as progressive education. In 1919 the Progressive Education Association (PEA) was founded with the purpose of reforming education.

In 1983 the National Commission for Excellence in Education published A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform, which startled the nation with its implications for failing to reform the system of public education.
Conclusion

1904 Mary McLeod Bethune opens school for African-American girls

1918 NEA Commission studies high school curriculum

1919 Progressive Education Association (PEA) is formed

1932 PEA commissions Eight Year Study

1954 Brown v. Board of Education signals desegregation
Significant Events of the 1900s
Perhaps the most far-reaching for the work of the classroom teacher and for the provision of services to children with special needs was the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975. The legislation has since been amended and expanded and provides support for millions of children with the mandate of providing a “free and appropriate education.”
The School Curriculum Comes Under Scrutiny
Suddenly the world was no longer as safe as it had seemed, and for the first time national defense was addressed in terms of the public schools.

Critics of the progressive curriculum pointedly attacked the lack of academic rigor in the curriculum and called for a revolution in the nation’s approach to education.

The federal government’s response was the National Defense Education Act of 1958. The government did not mandate what would be done in school, but nearly a billion dollars began to flow toward curriculum reform projects in science, mathematics, and the “new” subject of social studies.
Education Becomes a Matter of National Defense
The work of Maria Montessori (1870–1952), an Italian physician, also had a considerable impact on schooling for young children in the child-centered atmosphere of progressive education.

Montessori championed the notion of developmentally appropriate educational activities and argued that the “play” of young children was actually a sophisticated learning experience.

Montessori materials and methods continue in wide use today as part of early childhood education.
The Progressivist Movement Begins
A shift was occurring away from the cognitive perspective (a focus on academics) to an affective perspective (a focus on values and worthy citizenship) in terms of what schools should accomplish.

Though Dewey argued for more of a balance between the two, the progressive movement began to move in different directions. Ultimately, even Dewey would try to distance himself from the aberrations of his original work.
The Progressivist Movement Begins
By 1918, 75 percent of the school-aged population was enrolled in school.

Immigrants were arriving on both coasts of the United States, and rural residents were migrating to the cities for jobs arising from the Industrial Revolution.

Whereas increased enrollments had previously called for more schools and districts, the new trend was to consolidate smaller districts into larger, unified school districts to manage more effectively the numbers of students involved.
The First 50 Years of the 20th Century
400BCE
2012
1619
1779
1837
1900
1990
A teacher's purpose for educating influences how they teach.

Aristotle wrote prolifically on a wide variety of topics from philosophy to ethics to science, and also was a teacher and founder of a school, the Lyceum. Adopting a realist philosophy that sought the same truth Plato did, though through a study of the real world, Aristotle suggested that the state was best served by citizens capable of rational thinking.
The Influence of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle

Plato chronicled Socrates’ teachings and shared his idealist philosophy. A teacher, Plato founded a school known as the Academy. He wrote extensively, particularly in the form of dialogues in which Socrates was the primary character. Among his many works was The Republic, in which he outlined the design and function of a city-state based on the idea that the most intellectually accomplished should lead the society.
The Influence of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle

As an idealist, Socrates believed that people must question and examine their own knowledge in order to discover universal principles of truth and of beauty. He believed that universal ideas exist within us and must be drawn out.
The Influence of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
Organized educational efforts in ancient Greece were developed under the separate influences of each city-state. Chief among these were the cities of Sparta (which emphasized preparing boys to become warriors) and Athens (which had an emphasis on intellectual development).

Education was specifically provided to boys and was not provided to girls, slaves, or noncitizens. If girls were to receive an education at all, they received it at home.

Athenian boys attended a series of schools in which they received education in grammar, reading, writing, basic computation, gymnastics, and music. Included with music were history, drama, poetry, science, and speaking.
The Ancient Greeks


It was the influence from ancient Greece that laid the foundation for education as we know it today.

Strange as it may seem, issues of curriculum and equal access to education that we know of today were evident thousands of years ago as well.
The Emerging Need for Education
In the time of the ancient Greeks, formal education was provided to boys but not to girls. Though today it is normal for boys and girls to have equal educational opportunities, there exists considerable support for educating boys and girls separately. Do you think it makes sense to educate boys and girls separately?


A. Yes
B. No
What is Your Opinion?
The development of education from the middle of the fifth and down to the fourth century BC is peculiar in that three individuals—Socrates; Plato, who was Socrates’ student; and Aristotle, who was Plato’s student—were all from the same locale and contributed work that has influenced educational and philosophical thought for literally thousands of years.

Some of the points on which they disagreed remain as points of debate today.
The Influence of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
What does it mean to be educated?
The educational fate of women remained essentially the same as we have seen all along. Girls in wealthy families might receive a basic education, but the focus was clearly on fostering their abilities to accomplish their social responsibilities.

For poor white children, education was largely a matter of home instruction that addressed reading, writing, and basic computation.

Native Americans and African Americans were specifically denied schooling.
Regional Differences in Education Begin to Emerge
In the relatively rural southern colonies (Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia), wealthy settlers established large plantations that were a stark contrast to the close-knit communities of New England.

Community schools were not favored over the practice of private tutors brought to the homes of the students. Though the emphasis on education in the South was to promote religion and also to prepare students to attend a university, the goal was typically to send sons to universities in Europe.
Regional Differences in Education Begin to Emerge

The New England colonies were closely contained and under the strict influence of the Puritans. They grew into communities that reflected a singular religious orientation both in its culture and within its schools.

The middle colonies (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware) were far more diverse in ethnicity and religious denominations, and their communities emphasized commerce and the skills needed to conduct business.
Regional Differences in Education Begin to Emerge
Five years later the Massachusetts Act of 1647—also known as The Old Deluder Satan Act—required every town of 50 or more households to establish a school and hire a teacher, so that children would be educated to resist the temptations of Satan.

Towns of 100 or more households were also required to establish a Latin Grammar School to prepare students for university study.

Education was beginning to come of age a mere 27 years after the establishment of the Massachusetts colony.
Education Becomes a Matter of Law
Some 2,000 years earlier Plato had suggested that parents are not necessarily the best teachers for their children, and the Puritans apparently had some concerns as well.

In Massachusetts the first education law was passed as early as 1642. You might think of it as the first “accountability” initiative as it called for periodic checks to be certain that children were learning to read, write, and understand scriptural lessons.

compulsory education A requirement that parents enroll and send their children to school. In America it dates to the Massachusetts Act of 1642.
Education Becomes a Matter of Law


Dame

schools


Colonial schools typically run by educated widows or housewives in their own homes for a fee. They provided initial academic instruction for boys, particularly those from the middle and upper classes.


Latin Grammar Schools


The forerunners to what we now consider “high school,” they were patterned after schools in Europe and prepared students to enter divinity schools.
The Beginning of Secular Education
When formal education in the “new world” began to take shape, the curriculum was pretty well set: Schooling taught children (especially boys) to read, and the textbook was the Bible. Proper conduct and religious devotion were the lessons to be learned.

This was also a time punctuated with “reforms” that were practical for the time and were visionary for the future of education.

The public funding of school and the enactment of laws requiring the compulsory education of children provide two examples.
Religion and Education in the New World

Immigrants of Dutch, Irish, German, and Swedish descent wanted their children educated in keeping with their own beliefs. Quakers, Catholics, Baptists, Mennonites, and others established their own parochial schools. These church affiliated schools were licensed by the government as private venture schools, but they did not receive public funding.

The growing mercantile influence of the region further gave rise to private schools that specialized in vocational training.
Regional Differences in Education Begin to Emerge
Pre-colonial North America
Colonization and transplanting cultures
Education in the British North American Colonies 1607-1776
Polleverywhere: What is the purpose of K-12 Education?
"Think of an important event or experience in your life. What was it, and how would you be different had it not happened?
2004 Individuals With Disabilities in Education Act

IDEA defines a "child with a disability" as a "child... with an intellectual disability, hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments, visual impairments (including blindness), serious emotional disturbance..., orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities; AND, who... [because of the condition] needs special education and related services."[13]
Rehabilitation Act of 1973

Section 504 states (in part):

No otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States, as defined in section 705(20) of this title, shall, solely by reason of her or his disability, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance or under any program or activity conducted by any Executive agency or by the United States Postal Service.
1916
1950
Progressives
Civil Rights
1954-1957-1960
National Defense Education
1958-
1973 Rehabilitation Act (Section 504)
2004 Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act
1983 A Nation at Risk
2001 NCLB
http://www.tubechop.com/watch/532213
http://digital.films.com/PortalViewVideo.aspx?xtid=10800
http://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/MjEzNTM4NjkxOQ
Breakdown
: Each group will be given a different era in the history of American education. Your task is to summarize your section for the rest of the class. Be sure to address the following:
What is the purpose (s) of education during this era?
What factors influenced the purpose of education?
Who are some important figures in American education at this time and why are they significant?
In what ways has American education in 2013 been influenced by this era?

Education in the 1800s
Group 1: Education in the 1600s
Group 2: Education in the 1700s
Group 3: Education in the 1800s
Group 4: Education in the 1800s
Group 5: Education in the first half of the 20th Century
https://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_polls/X8vXZrB5uGBlGl3
What does it mean to be educated?
Education in the 1800s
Full transcript