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Unification of Germany and Italy
Transcript of Unification of Germany and Italy
Created after the Conference in Vienna
The German Confederation was comprised of 39 loosely joined states. Austria and Prussia were the largest and most powerful.
German leaders wanted to unify all the states in order to become even more powerful
The Second German Reich came into being and it was to last until Germany’s defeat in World War I in 1918.
Holy Roman Empire
Otto von Bismark
Prussian leader, Wilhelm I, a member of the Junkers, a conservative political party.
The Prussians were embroiled in militarism, the glorification of a military culture.
1848-Wilhelm I took control of Berlin and restored German Confederation- King Wilhelm I
Otto von Bismark
Wars of German Unification
Austria and Prussia formed an alliance to take land from Denmark
When Denmark's King (Frederick VII) died with no male heirs, fought to take the land-WON
War between Austria and Prussia, 1866
In 1866 arguments about the administration of Schleswig-Holstein led to war breaking out between Austria and Prussia.
This war lasted seven weeks and resulted in a Prussian victory over the Austrians.
In defeating the Austrians the Prussians assumed the leading state in Germany.
After 1867 relations between Prussia and France worsened.
France declared war on Prussia.
Prussia wins quickly
Wave of German patriotism/NATIONALISM
unifies rest of Germany
King William I of Prussia becomes Emperor of all Germany on January 18th 1871.
Bismarck remained Chancellor until his resignation in 1890.
Franco-Prussian War, 1870
Wilhelm I (Prussian King) trying to put a relative on the throne in Spain
France's Abassador asked Wilhelm to promise not to try to put a relative on the Spanish throne --Wilhelm POLITELY said "No."
Telegram published about this request and refusal (edited by Otto von Bismark) that made it seem as though the two men were insulting each other
Upset France, so France declared war
Prime Minister of Prussia
Ruled by realpolitik
"Politics of Reality"
diplomacy based primarily on power rather than philosophical ideas
Bismarck was determined that unification of Germany would occur by using "blood and iron."
“Not by speeches and majority votes are the great questions of the day decided – that was the great error of 1848 and 1849 – but by blood and iron“.