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Transcript of Plants
Photosynthesis is the process that allows plants to take energy from the Sun and create sugar molecules. Photosynthesis stores the energy and respiration releases that energy.
Plants have cell walls that are made of cellulose. Cell walls serve as support structures by protecting individual cells and creating a larger structure for the entire plant. Cellulose is called a
Plant Reproductive Structures
Plants have reproductive structures that prevent the drying out of the gametes.
Plant surfaces exposed to air are covered in a waxy layer, called a cuticle, that guards against water loss.
Gas exchange in plants is limited to pores in the leaf epidermis called stomata, which can open and close to prevent excessive evaporation of water into the environment.
The plant life cycle begins with a seed. The seed will sprout and produce a tiny, immature plant called a seedling. The seedling will grow to adulthood and form a mature plant. The mature plant will reproduce by forming new seeds which will begin the next life cycle.
A tissue is a group of cells with a common function, structure or both.
Some of the key tissues in plants are:
Gymnosperms have no fruits to protect their seeds.
Gymnosperms produce both male and female gametophytes on separate cones and rely on wind for pollination.
Angiosperms are flowering vascular plants.
Angiosperms produce a fruit that protects the seed(s).
Angiosperms can only contain male or female structures, or both.
Pollinators pickup and carry pollen to other plants. The pollen sticks to the stigma, which is part of the female structure of the plant. Fertilization occurs in the ovary, and soon develops into a fruit.
Common Plant Traits
CO2 + H2O light > C6H12O6 + O2
Carbon Water Glucose Oxygen
Ferns are seedless vascular plants.
Instead of seeds, they grow from spores.
The gametophytes release sperm to fertilize eggs, and fertilization happens right on top of the gametophyte. The sporophyte grows into a new fern plant, and produces spores to complete the life cycle.
Sperm have flagella, that allow them to swim. In order to swim, they need water. This means ferns can only successfully reproduce in wet places, or after a rain.
Plant Life Cycle