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Transcript of Neoclassical Era
Beliefs This would later contribute to the industrial revolution. Cornhill, London
Childhood- Unhealthy home environment.
Attended Eton College 1725 to 1734
Attended Kings College 1734
He began writing Latin Verse and poetry when one of his close friends went to a different college than him and his other friends.
He wrote in French and Latin.
Family: Abusive father, caring mother. He lived with his uncle, Robert, while in school.
Bachelor of Civil Law in 1743, but he rather study Greek literature.
Worked at a bar.
His poetry is classical ideals of restraint and composure. Architecture
Reaction against Rococo style. The Bard
'Ruin seize thee, ruthless King!
Confusion on thy banners wait,
Tho' fanned by Conquest's crimson wing
They mock the air with idle state.
Helm, nor Hauberk's twisted mail,
Nor even thy virtues, Tyrant, shall avail
To save thy secret soul from nightly fears,
From Cambria'sÊ curse, from Cambria's tears!'
Such were the sounds, that o'er the crested pride
Of the first Edward scatter'd wild dismay, 10
As down the steep of Snowdon's shaggy sideÊ
He wound with toilsome march his long array.
Stout Glo'ster stood aghast in speechless trance:
'To arms!' cried Mortimer, and couch'd his quiv'ring lance.
On a rock, whose haughty brow
Frowns o'er old Conway's foaming flood,
Robed in the sable garb of woe,
With haggard eyes the Poet stood;
(Loose his beard, and hoary hair
Stream'd, like a meteor, to the troubled air) 20
And with a Master's hand, and Prophet's fire,
Struck the deep sorrows of his lyre.
'Hark, how each giant-oak, and desert cave,
Sighs to the torrent's aweful voice beneath!
O'er thee, oh King! their hundred arms they wave,
Revenge on thee in hoarser murmurs breath;
Vocal no more, since Cambria's fatal day,
To high-born Hoßl's harp, or soft Llewellyn's lay.Ê
Cold is Cadwallo'sÊ tongue,
That hush'd the stormy main: 30
Brave Urien sleeps upon his craggy bed:
Mountains, ye mourn in vain
Modred, whose magic song
Made huge Plinlimmon bow his cloud-top'd head.
On dreary Arvon'sÊ shore they lie,
Smear'd with gore, and ghastly pale:
Far, far aloof th' affrighted ravens sail;
The famish'd Eagle screams, and passes by.
Dear lost companions of my tuneful art,
Dear, as the light that visits these sad eyes, 40
Dear, as the ruddy drops that warm my heart,
Ye died amidst your country's cries--
No more I weep. They do not sleep.
On yonder cliffs, a griesly band,
I see them sit, they linger yet,
Avengers of their native land:
With me in dreadful harmony they join,
And weave with bloody hands, the tissue of thy line.'
'Weave the warp, and weave the woof,Ê
The winding-sheet of Edward's race. 50
Give ample room, and verge enough
The characters of hell to trace.
Mark the year, and mark the night,
When Severn shall re-eccho with affright
The shrieks of death, thro' Berkley's roofs that ring,
Shrieks of an agonizing King!Ê
She-Wolf of France,Ê with unrelenting fangs,
That tear'st the bowels of thy mangled Mate,
From thee be born, who o'er thy country hangs
The scourge of Heav'n.Ê What Terrors round him wait! 60
Amazement in his van, with Flight combined,
And Sorrow's faded form, and Solitude behind.
Mighty Victor, mighty Lord,
Low on his funeral couch he lies!
No pitying heart, no eye, afford
A tear to grace his obsequies.
Is the sable Warriour fled?Ê
Thy son is gone. He rests among the Dead.
The Swarm, that in thy noon-tide beam were born?
Gone to salute the rising Morn. 70
Fair laughs the Morn, and soft the Zephyr blows,Ê
While proudly riding o'er the azure realm
In gallant trim the gilded Vessel goes;
Youth on the prow, and Pleasure at the helm;
Regardless of the sweeping Whirlwind's sway,
That, hush'd in grim repose, expects his evening-prey.
Fill high the sparkling bowl,
The rich repast prepare,
Reft of a crown, he yet may share the feast:
Close by the regal chair 80
Fell Thirst and Famine scowl
A baleful smile upon their baffled Guest.
Heard ye the din of battle bray,
Lance to lance, and horse to horse?
Long Years of havock urge their destined course,
And thro' the kindred squadrons mow their way.
Ye Towers of Julius, London's lasting shame,Ê
With many a foul and midnight murther fed,
Revere his Consort's faith, his Father's fame,
And spare the meek Usurper's holy head.Ê 90
Above, below, the rose of snow,
Twined with her blushing foe,Ê we spread:
The bristled Boar in infant-gore
Wallows beneath the thorny shade.Ê
Now, Brothers, bending o'er th' accursed loom
Stamp we our vengeance deep, and ratify his doom.
Edward, lo! to sudden fate
(Weave the woof. The thread is spun)
Half of thy heart we consecrate.Ê
(The web is wove. The work is done.)' 100
'Stay, oh stay! nor thus forlornÊ
Leave me unbless'd, unpitied, here to mourn:
In yon bright track, that fires the western skies,
They melt, they vanish from my eyes.
But oh! what solemn scenes on Snowden's height
Descending slow their glitt'ring skirts unroll?
Visions of glory, spare my aching sight,
Ye unborn Ages, crowd not on my soul!
No more our long-lost Arthur we bewail.
All-hail, ye genuine Kings, Brittania's Issue, hail!Ê 110
Girt with many a Baron bold
Sublime their starry frontsÊ they rear;
And gorgeous Dames, and Statesmen old
In bearded majesty, appear.
In the midst a Form divine!Ê
Her eye proclaims her of the Briton-Line;
Her lyon-port, her awe-commanding face,
Attemper'd sweet to virgin-grace.
What strings symphonious tremble in the air,
What strains of vocal transport round her play! 120
Hear from the grave, great Taliessin,Ê hear;
They breathe a soul to animate thy clay.
Bright Rapture calls, and soaring, as she sings,
Waves in the eye of Heav'n her many-colour'd wings.
The verse adorn again
Fierce War, and faithful Love,Ê
And Truth severe, by fairy Fiction drest.
In buskin'd measures move
Pale Grief, and pleasing Pain,
With Horrour, Tyrant of the throbbing breast.Ê 130
A Voice, as of the Cherub-Choir,
Gales from blooming Eden bear;Ê
And distant warblings lessen on my ear,
That lost in long futurity expire.
Fond impious Man, think'st thou, yon sanguine cloud,
Rais'd by thy breath, has quench'd the Orb of day?
To-morrow he repairs the golden flood,
And warms the nations with redoubled ray.
Enough for me: With joy I see
The different doom our Fates assign. 140
Be thine Despair, and scept'red Care,
To triumph, and to die, are mine.'
He spoke, and headlong from the mountain's height
Deep in the roaring tide he plung'd to endless night.
http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/his/CoreArt/art/neocl_dav_oath.html Oath of the Horatii
Jacques-Louis David, 1784 Began 1760s
Lasted until 1850s Excavations of the buried Roman cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii.
Influenced by Greek art. http://www.civicart.org/lectures.html http://littlemiller.wordpress.com/2009/05/20/baroque-vs-rococo-the-never-ending-debate/baroque-art-04/ http://artinvestment.ru/en/news/exhibitions/20090502_pompeii_frescoes.html http://www.queermap.com/images-gallery/Europe%20to%201800/pages/Chiron-Achilles-Herculaneum.htm http://impressionist1877.tripod.com/neoclassicism.htm Bank of England http://www.architecture-student.com/architecture/architectural-transformations-after-industrial-revolution-cultural-transformations/ http://0.tqn.com/d/architecture/1/0/N/q/USCapitol.jpg U.S. Capital http://0.tqn.com/d/architecture/1/0/M/q/Versailles51375217sm.jpg&w=1250&h=814&ei=EZmBUfW_NdKFyQHh54DoCQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=104&page=1&tbnh=137&tbnw=194&start=0&ndsp=32&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:84&tx=158&ty=48 Arch de Triomphe Fashion Due to Charles II being restored to throne, there was expansion of British rule in both North America and the Far East Soon there was a dissolution of direct English control of Scotland This essentially gave the Scots national independence and laid foundations for continued religious feuding They believed that when reason served as the yardstick for the measurement of all human activities and relations. Every superstition, injustice and oppression was to yield place to “eternal truth,” “eternal justice” and “natural equality.” Also Known as The Enlightenment. Age of Reason. and Age of Revolutions Alexander Pope
1688 - 1744 Deism
Attempt to combine science with Christianity
God viewed as a “clockmaker” who creates the clock and then allows it to run on its own, according to “rules” like gravity, inertia, etc.
Thomas Jefferson was a deist. Couplets on Wit by Alexander Pope
But our Great Turks in wit must reign alone
And ill can bear a Brother on the Throne.
Wit is like faith by such warm Fools profest
Who to be saved by one, must damn the rest.
Some who grow dull religious strait commence
And gain in morals what they lose in sence.
Wits starve as useless to a Common weal
While Fools have places purely for their Zea.
Now wits gain praise by copying other wits
As one Hog lives on what another sh---.
Wou'd you your writings to some Palates fit
Purged all you verses from the sin of wit
For authors now are so conceited grown
They praise no works but what are like their own. He was born to an upper middle class Catholic family Prominent Poet and Satirist of the English Augustan period who was best known for his poems An Essay on Criticism (1711), The Rape of the Lock (1712–14), The Dunciad (1728), and An Essay on Man (1733–34). Pope was never taught at a legitimate school,
but was taught by various tutors He wrote other famous works such as:
Chorus of Athenians
Couplets on Wit
Eloisa to Abelard Politics & History The first monarch of the period is Charles II, He professed to support the Church of England but was secretly Roman Catholic. In public he professed loyalty to his childless queen Henrietta but in public had a series of mistresses, several of whom bore him bastard children After the religious Puritan revolution, most Britons were terrified of another religious takeover of government; the rumors about Charles’ Catholicism led to fears of a Catholic conspiracy and eventually to the 1680 Bill of Exclusion and the 1700 Act of Settlement which permanently prohibited a Catholic from taking the throne of England. When James II inherited his brother’s throne and made moves toward imposing Catholic tolerance and Catholic ministers on England, the government rebelled and replaced James with his Protestant son-in-law, William, from Holland. William and Mary took the throne jointly in the "glorious revolution" of 1688; they were succeeded by Mary’s sister Anne. George I was actually 52nd in line to the throne by blood, but the closest male Protestant relative, so he became king on childless Anne’s death. Series of commercial wars against the Dutch, French, Austrians, Spanish, and eventually its own American colonists. 1642- The English Civil War
1650- Age of Enlightenment
1665- The Black Death
1666- The Fire of London
1668- The Glorious Revolution
1678- The Whig Party is founded
1689- The Bill of Rights of England Society and Norms The emphasis on looking right and acting right meant that this was an age of decorum. Social decorum sets down appropriate social behavior and propriety Great value was placed on manners, on virtues like self-control and self-governance, and above all on balance. One was not supposed to rebel or act out or be outrageous. Women This is the first period where women writers were able to publish under their own names and gain some acceptance at it—a few women writers were even able to earn their livings as professional writers. But women were certainly not encouraged to be rebellious or independent. They still had no independent legal existence; they remain as legal chattels of husband or father. Their sphere of power was the home, where they were mistress of the house. The first period where we see guidebooks for parents, children’s literature, and manuals on how to run households. Education for women remained as it had been since the later Middle Ages—girls learned enough reading, writing and math to run a household, also were encouraged to read novels and periodicals, but the schools and universities remained a male preserve. Conform to established social norms. Comfort was celebrated. The rise of the Middle Class. They were obsessed with proving they had "good taste". Gentlemen flocked to coffee houses in the City of London to discuss the latest periodicals For the first time periodicals are filled with advertisements for home decorations, fashions, and furniture. For the first time, the Middle Class had time for leisure and wanted entertainments to fill it. This is the age of the rise of the newspaper and the periodical, the return of the public theatre, and the birth of the novel. John Dryden Born August 9, 1631
He was the eldest of fourteen children born to Erasmus Dryden and wife Mary Pickering.
As a boy Dryden lived in the nearby village of Titchmarsh, Northamptonshire where it is also likely that he received his first education.
In 1644 he was sent to Westminster School as a King’s Scholar 1631-1700 After the Restoration, Dryden quickly established himself as the leading poet and literary critic of his day and he transferred his allegiances to the new government. Dryden was the dominant literary figure and influence of his age. He established the heroic couplet as a standard form of English poetry by writing successful satires, religious pieces, fables, epigrams, compliments, and prologues. Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom. To His Sacred Majesty: A Panegyric on his Coronation (1662)
To My Lord Chancellor (1662)
Of Dramatick Poesie (1668)
Marriage á la Mode (1672)
All for Love (1678)