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Transcript of Chpater 4
one would not have encountered
during the earliest years of
settlement. -Tidewater planter
-London was his 2nd home, Virginia being
-In 1728, he accepted a commission to help survey a disputed boudary with North Carolina.
-In his journey into the BackCountry he journaled about the people he met on the way.
-a couple of Hermits
-independent men and woman that he described as living just over the standards of savages.
-the Catawaba, Tuscarora, Usheree, and Sappori Indians. Vocabulary Conquering the Northern Frontier Peoples of the Spanish Borderlands Vocabulary American Enlightenment Economic Transformation Birth of a Consumer Society Vocabulary Benjamin Franklin 1706-1790 In the Backcountry
The First national census did not occur until 1790
Britain's 13 midland colonies rose from 250,000 in 1700 to 2,150,000 in 1770, and annual growth rate of 3%.
Because of this sudden expansion, the colonial population was very young, 1/2 of the populace was under the age 16.
If the growth rate had not have dropped in the 19th and 20th centuries, today the US would have over 1 billion people.
They plunged into a complex, fluid, often violent society that included Native Americans, African Americans, as well as other Europeans. During the 17th century, English rulers thought
they could dominate Catholic Ireland by transporting thousands of lowland Scottish Presbyterians to northern Ireland
they passed laws that placed the Scots-Irish at a disadvantage when they traded in England; they taxed them exorbitantly.
in 1720 many Scots-Irish began to emigrate to America, where they hoped to find the freedom and prosperity that they had been denied.
150,000 Scots-Irish migrated to the colonies before the Revolution
Most Scots-Irish landed in Philadelphia, but insted carved out farms on Pennsylvania's western frontier.
the immigrants didn't like the fact they there was already large tracts of land reserved they believed that "it was against the laws of God and nature that so much land should be idle when so many Christians wanted it to labour on and to raise there bread". A second large body of non-English settlers, more than
100,000 people came from the upper Rhine Valley, the German Palatinate. Some of the migrants, especially those who relocated to America around 1700, belonged to small pietistic Protestant sects whose relgious views were similar to those of the Quakers. Francis Daniel Pastorius led these Germans to the new world to find religious toleration.
Mennonites established a prosperous community in Pennsylvania known as Germantown.
The characteristics of the German migration had begun to change, many Lutherans transferred to the Middle Colonies in search of religious freedom
The pietistic sects traveled to the new world to improve their material lives
The Lutheran Church in Germany tried to control the distant congregations but although the migrants fiercely preserved their traditional German culture, they were eventually forced to accommodate to new social conditions. Henry Melchior Muhlenberg 1711-1787 1711-1787 a tireless leader, helped German Lutherans through a difficult cultural adjustment. in 1748, Muhlenberg organized a meeting of local pastors and lay delegates that ordained ministers of their own choosing, an act of spiritual independence that has been called " the most important single event in American Lutheran history." In the 17th certury
Indian groups that contested the English settlers suffered terribly, sometimes from war, but more from contagious diseases such as smallpox.
The two races found it hard to live in a close proximity.
By the 18th century, the site of the most intense and creative contact between the races had shifted to the huge territory between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River, where several hundred thousand Native Americans made their homes. A group of Indians called the Delaware retreated to far western Pennsylvania and the Ohio Valley to escape almost continuous confrontation with advancing European invaders.
The survivors joined with other Indians to establish new multiethnic communities. Stronger groups of Indians, such as the Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, and Shawee, generally welcomed the refugees. Strangers were formally adopted to replace relatives killed in battle or overcome by sickness.
Native Americans relied on white traders, French and English, to provide essential metal goods and weapons. European goods subtly eroded tradition Native American authority structures.
If a trader wanted a rich supply of animal skins, for example, he soon learned that he had better negotiate directly with a chief or tribal elder. But as more European traders operated within the "middle ground" ordinary Indians began to bargain for themselves, obtaining colorful and durable manufactured items without first consulting a Native American leader. The survival of the middle ground depended ultimately on factors over which the Native Americans had little control.
Competition between France and Great Britain enhanced the Indians' bargaining position.
In 1763, the Indians no longer received the same solicitous attention.
In the southern backcountry between 1685 and 1790, the Indian population dropped an astounding 72%. Backcountry- a region streching approximately 800 miles from western Pennsylvania to Georgia.
Scots-Irish- are lowland Scottish Presbyterians transported to northern Ireland.
Middle ground- a geographical area where two district cultures interacted with neither holding a clear upper hand - helped us understand how 18th century Indians held their own in the backcountry beyond the Appalachian Mountains.
Indian Confederacies confederation of five (later six) Indian tribes across upper New York state that during the 17th and 18th centuries played a strategic role in the struggle between the French and British for mastery of North America. Mexico declaired its independence from Madrid in 1821.
During the 18th century, the Spanish empire in North America included widely dispersed settlements such as San Francisco and San Diego in California; Santa Fe, New Mexico; San Antonio, Texas; and St Augustine, Florida.
European colonists mixed with peoples of other races and backgrounds, forming multicultural societies. In the Late 16th century, Spanish settlers led by Juan de Onate established European communities north of the Rio Grande.
Pueblo Indians resisted the invasion of colonists, soldiers, and missionaries, and in a major rebellion in 1680 led by El Pope, the native peoples drove the whites out of new Mexico.
the Spanish did not reconquer till 1692
Concern over French encroachment in the southeast led Spain to colonize St. Augustine in 1565 which was the first permanent European settlements in what would become the US.
Adventurers saw no natural resources worth mentioning, and since the area was difficult to reach from Mexico City the overland trip could take months, California received very little attention.
After 1769, two indomitable servants of empire, Fra Junipero Serra and Don Gaspar de Portola, organized permanent missions and presidos at San Dialgo, Monterey, San Francisco and Santa Barbara. Spanish outposts in North America grew slowly
Most European migrants were soldiers in the pay of the empire.
Because European women rarely appeard on the frontier, Spanish males formed relationships with Indian women, fathering mestizos, children of mixed race. In other 18th century frontiers, encouters with Spanish soliers, priests, and traders altered Native American cultures.
The Spanish exploited Native American labor, reducing entire Indian villages to servitude.
They were consigned to the lowest social class, objects of European contempt.
No matter how much their lives changed they resisted efforts to change the Catholicism.
The Pueblo Indians maintained religious forms-often at great personal risk and they sometimes murdered priests who became to instructive. Angry Pueblo Indians at Taos reportedly fed the Spanish friars corn tortillas containing urine and mouse meat. Juan de Onate- led Spanish settlers to establish European communities north of the Rio Grande. The character of the older, more established British colonies changed almost as rapidly as that of the backcountry.
Americans still lived on scattered farms, they had begun to participate aggressively in an exciting consumer marketplace that expanded their imaginative horizon European historians often refer to the 18th century as an age of reason.
During this period, a body of new, often radical, ideas swept through the salons and universities, altering how educated Europeans thought about God, nature and society.
For a while the colonists welcomed experimental science, but they defended traditional Christianity.
The responsibility of right thinking men and women therefore, was to make certain that institutions such as church and state conformed to self evident natural laws.
The Enlightenment spawned scores of earnest scientific thinkers, people who dutifully recorded changes in temperature, strange plants and animals, an astronomic phenomena. Absorbed the new cosmopolitan culture
Phiosophe, a person of reason and science, a role that he self-consciously cultivated when he visited England and France in later life
Grew up in Puritan New England
After he moved to Philadelphia in 1723, Franklin devoted himself to the pursuit of useful knowledge, ideas that would increase the happiness of his fellow Americans.
In 1756, he invented the lightning rod, He also designed and efficient stove that is still used today During the first three-quarters of the 18th century, the population increased at least eightfold.
Income did not decline
New farmers could not only providefor their families well being, but could also sell their crops in European and West Indian markets. Each year more Americans produced more tobacco, wheat, or rice- to cite just the major export crops
More than 1/2 of American goods produced for export went to Britain.
Crown officials, however, generally ignored the new laws, New England merchants imported molasses from French Caribbean islands without paying the full customs, iron masters in the Middle Colonies continued to produce iron.
Even without the Navigation Acts, however most colonial exports would have been sold on the English market. After midcentury, Americans began buying more English goods than their parents and grandparents had done, giving birth to a consumer revolution.
Between 1740 and 1770 English exports to the American colonies increased by an astounding 360%
The pace of the British economy picked up dramatically after 1690.
Staffordshire China replaced crude earthenware; imported cloth replaced homespun. To help Americans purchase manufactured goos, British merchants offered generous credit.
They gambled on the future, hoping bumper crops would reduce their dependence on the large merchant houses of London and Glasgow.
Intercoastal trade also increased in the 18th century. Southern planters sent tobacco and rice to New England and the Middle Colonies, where these spales were exchanged for meat, wheat, and goods imported from Britain.
By 1760, 30 percent of the colonists total tonnage capacity was involved in this clockwise commerce. Backcountry farmers also carried their grain to market along an old Iroquois trail that became known as the Great Wagon Road.
The shifting patterens of trade had immense effects on the development of and American culture.
First the flood of British imports eroded local and religional identities.Commerce helped to Anglicize American culture by exposing colonial consumers to a common range to British manufactured good.
Second, the expanding coastal and overland trade brought colonist of different backgrounds into more frequent contact. Ships that sailed between New England and South Carolina, and between Virginia and Pennsylvania, provided disperced Americans with a means to exchange ideas and experiences on more regular basis. Enlightenment- intellectual revolution that involved the work of Europe's greatesr minds, men such as Newton and Locke, Voltaire and Hume.
White Pine Acts- passed in 1711, 1722, and 1729 forbade Americans from cutting white pine trees without a license.
The molasses Act- of 1733-also called the Sugar Act placed a heavey duty on molasses imported from foreign ports
Hat and Felt and Iron Acts- attempted to limit the production of colonial goods that competed with British exports.
Consumer revolution- when Americans began buying more English goods than their parentsor grandparents had done. In the early 18th century, many Americans especially New Englanders complained that organized religion had lost vitality.
Congregational ministers seemed obsessed with dull, scholastic matters; they no longer touched the heart.
The Great Awakening arrived unexpectedly in Northampton, a small farm community in western Massachusetts.
Whitefields audiences came from all groups of American society; rich and poor, young and old, rural and urban. Johnathan Edwards Local Congregational minister
Accepted the traditional teachings of Calvinism, reminding his parishioners that an omnipotent God had determined their eternal fate.
They left men and women with the mistaken impression that sinners might somehow avoid damnation by preforming good works. George Whitefield A young inspiring preacher from England who torched the colonies from New Hampshire to Georgia Despite Whitefields successes, many ministers remained suspicious of the itinerants and their methods.
Despite occasional anti-intellectual outbursts, the New Lights founder several important centers of higher learning. they wanted to train young men to carry on the good works Edwards, Whitefeild, and Tennent. In 1746, New Light Presbyterians established the Collage of New Jersey, which later became Princeton University.
The Great Awakening also encouraged men and women who had been taught to remain silent before traditional authority figures to speak up, to take and active role in their salvation.
With religious contention came an awareness of a larger community, a union of fellow believers that extended beyond the boundaries of town and colony.
People who had been touched by the Great Awakening shared an optimism about the future of America. Great Awakening- Sudden series of Protestant revivals in the mid 18th century.
Itinerant Preachers- who travled from settlement to settlement through out the colonies to pread their message. Governing the colonies: The American Experience. Americans of all religions repeatedly stated their desire to replicate British political institutions. Parliament, they claimed, provided a model for the American assemblies.
The colonists claimed that this unwritten constitution preserved their rights and liberties. The colonists argued that within their political systems, the governor corresponded to the king and the governors council to he House of Lords.
Royal governors were advised by a council, usually a body of about 12 wealthy colonists selected by the Board of Trade in London on the recommendation of the governor.
During the 17th century the council had played an important role in colonial government, but its ability to exercise independent authority declined during the 18th century.
If royal governors did not look like kings, nor American councils look like the House of Lords, colonial assemblies bore little resemblance to the 18th century House of Commons.
In most colonies, adult white males who owned a little land could vote in colonywide elections In Massachusetts 95% voted and in Virginia 85% voted.
Colonial Assemblies Elected members of the colonial assemblies believed that they had an obligation to preserve colonial liberties.
The representatives brooked no criticism, and several colonial printers were jailed because they criticized actions taken by a lower house.
Colonial legislators had no reason to cooperate with appointed royal governors.
Alexander Spotswood, Virginia's governor from 1710 to 1722, for example attempted to institute a new land program backed by the crown. the members of the House of Burgesses refused to support a plan that did not suit their own interests.
A few governors managed briefly to recreate in America the political culture of patronage, a system that 18th century Englishmen took for granted.
Most successful in this endeavor was William Shirley, who held office in Massachusetts from 1741-1757.
The colonists really believed in the purity of the balanced constitution so they insisted on complete separation of executive and legislative authority.
As political developments drew the colonists closer to the mother country, they also made Americans more aware of eachother.
The founders of England's mailand colonies had engaged in intense local conflicts with the Indians such as King Philips War 1675-1676 in New England.
But after 1690 the colonists were increasingly involved in hostilities that originated on the other side of the Atlantic, in political and commercial rivalries between Britain and France. The French Threat On paper at least the British colonies enjoyed military superiority over the settlements of New France. King Louis XVI of France 1643-1715 had an army 100,000 well armed troops, but he dispatched few of them to the New World.
For most of the 18th century, the theoretical advantages the English colonists enjoyed did them little good.
While the British settlements possessed a larger and more prosperous population, they were divided into separate governments that sometimes seemed more suspicious of each other than of the French.
During the early 18th century, English colonists came to believe that the French planned to "encircle" them to confine the English to a narrow strip of land along the Atlantic coast.
Date Amer.Name Major Battle Treaty
1689-1697 King Williams War New England Troops Assault Quebec under Sir William Phips (1690) Treaty of Ryswick (1697)
1702-1713 Queen Anne’s War Attack of Deer Field (1704) Treaty of Utrecht (1713)
1743-1748 King George’s War New England forces capture Louisbourg under William Pepperell (1745) Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)
1756-1763 French and Indian War British and Continental forces capture Quebec under Major General James Wolfe (1759) Peace of Paris (1763) King George's War and its Aftermath In 1743 after many small frontier engagements the Americans were dragged into King George's War 1743-1748 known in Europe as the War of the Austrian Succession, in which the colonists scored a magnificent victory over the French.
The French were not prepared to surrender and inch, but the English colonies were growing more populous, and the English possessed a seemingly inexhaustible supply of manufactured goods to trade with the Indians. The French decided in the early 1750's therefore, to seize the Ohio Valley before the Virginians could.
Although France and Britain had not officially declared war, British officials advised the governor of Virginia to "repel force by force".
In 1754, militia companies under a promising young officer, George Washington, constructed Fort Necessity not far from Fort Duquesne. The plan failed, The French and their Indian allies overran the exposed outpost.
When British officials invited representatives from Virginia, Maryland, and the northern colonies to Albany to discuss relations with the Iroquois, Franklin used the occasion to present a blueprint for colonial union.
In 1755, the Ohio Valley again became the scene of fierce fighting.
In command was Major General Edward Braddock, an obese, humorless veteran who inspired neither fear nor respect.
On July 9th, Braddock led 2,500 British redcoats and colonists to humiliating defeat. The French and Indians opened fire as Braddock's army waded across the Monogahela River about 8 miles from Duquesne. Seven Years War Britain's imperial war effort had hit bottom. no one in England or America seemed to possess the leadership necessary to drive the French from the Mississippi Valley.
The cabinet of George II lacked the will to organize and finance a sustained military campaign in the New World, and colonial assemblies balked everytime Britain asked them to raise men and money.
May 18,1756 the British officially declared war on the French, a conflict called the French and Indian War in America and the Seven Years War in Europe. William Pitt The most powerful minister in King George's Cabinet
This self confident Englishman believed he alone could save the British empire
In 1757 Pitt Advanced and new imperial policy based on commercial assumptions
He was determined to expel the French from the continent, however great the cost.
Tor direct the grand campaign, Pitt seleted 2 relatively obscure officers, Jeffery Amherst and James Wolfe.
July 26, 1758, forces under their direction recaptured Louisbourg, the same fortress the colonists had taken a decade earlier.
This victory cut the Canadians main supply line with France. the small population of New France could no longer meet the military demands placed on it.
The French forts in the Ohio Valley and the Great Lakes began to fall. Duquesne was abandoned in 1758.
In the summer of 1759, the French surrendered key forts at Ticonderoga, Crown Point, and Niagara
The French had been driven from the mainland of North America.
Perceptions of War The Seven Years War made a deep impression on American society. Even though Franklin's Albany Plan had Failed, the war had forced the colonists to cooperate on an unprecedented scale.
The War trained a corps of American officers, people like George Washington, who learned that the British were not invincible.
Vocabulary Albany Plan- was an envision of the formation of a Grand Council, made up of elected delegates from the colonies, to oversee matters of common defense.
James Thompson, an Englishman understood the hold of empire on the popular imaginationof the 18th century.
In 1740 he composed words that British patriots have proudly sung more than 2 centuries. Rule Britannia, Britannia rule the waves, Britons never will be slaves.
By mid century colonial Americans took their political and cultural cues from Great Britain. They fought in its wars, purchased its consumer goods, flocked to hear its evangelical preachers and read its publications.
Americans hailed Britannia