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Developing a questionnaire to investigate second

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Neya 13

on 10 March 2014

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Transcript of Developing a questionnaire to investigate second

integrated
Theoretical support for
isolated FFI

DeKeyser (1998)
Empirical support for
integrated FFI
Comes from several studies investigating different ways in which learners’ attention has been drawn to form in communicative and content-based classrooms.
Developing a questionnaire to investigate second
language learners’ preferences for two types
of form-focused instruction
Nina Spada *, Khaled Barkaoui, Colette Peters, Margaret So, Antonella Valeo
Learning may be negatively affected when learners’ expectations are not matched by the reality of the classroom.

Research in second language learning suggests that learners’ and teachers’ preferences for instructional approaches warrant investigation.

Learner attitudes play a strong role in determining the success of innovations in instructional practices.
A mismatch between instructors’ and learners’ attitudes may also lead to conflict that can adversely affect learning .
isolated
(Savignon and Wang, 2003)
(Horwitz, 1987)
(Schulz, 2001; Spada and Gass, 1986; Wesche, 1981; Yorio, 1986)
Second language acquisition (SLA) literature
INSTRUCTION
effective
FORM
MEANING
includes
attention
to
both
is
most
and
Two approaches drawing learners’ attention to language form in second language instruction:
Isolated
FORM-FOCUSED
instruction
form-focused instruction
Provided separately from
the communicative
use of language.
Used in preparation for a
communicative activity or after a communicative
activity.
Communicative or content-based portions of the lesson
Focus on language form
Integrated
form-focused instruction
Is provided to learners within ongoing communicative or content-based
instruction.
Exchange of meaning:
attention to form is brief
, and may consist
of instruction and/or feedback from
the teacher.
"[grammar] should be taught explicitly, to achieve a maximum of understanding, and then should be followed by some exercises to anchor it solidly in the students’ consciousness, in declarative form, so that it is easy to keep in mind during communicative exercises."
Theoretical support for
integrated FFI

Theoretical constructs in SLA
Long’s, (1996)
"revised interaction hypothesis"
Lyster’s, (1998)
"negotiation of form"
Swain and Lapkin’s, (2002)
"meta-talk"
(Doughty and Varela, 1998; Ellis et al., 2001; Harley, 1998; Lyster, 1994;
Spada and Lightbown, 1993; Williams and Evans, 1998)
Integrated Scale
Isolated Scale
Schulz
corrective feedback
explicit

implicit
deductive
inductive
instruction with ESL and EFL learners
VS
VS
grammar instruction
and
corrective feedback
Loewen et al.
(2009)
But to our knowledge, none has investigated when in the pedagogical sequence
learners and teachers prefer to focus on form.
Thus, it
became clear that we would need to design a questionnaire for our purposes.
(1996, 2001)
General issues related to the importance of validation in questionnaire-based
research.
Questionnaire validation
Before making any
claims based on questionnaire data, one needs to present
theoretical
and
empirical
evidence supporting the adequacy and appropriateness
of the inferences one draws
from such data.
Dornyei, 2003
Litwin, 1995
Hatch and Lazaraton, 1991
Messick, 1989
Oppenheim, 1992
Brown, 2001
Questionnaire Validation
-the process of building a case – articulating an argument and collecting evidence' in support of the particular interpretations and inferences one makes based on questionnaire data (or any other measure).
Methodology
Developing the item pool
Participants
Expert judges
Questionnaire
respondents
Data analysis
Results
measures the internal consistency of the scale.
.
Alpha if item deleted
Indicates the effect of removing an item on the overall alpha coefficient for that scale.
.
Alpha
12 Expert Judges
''content experts''
Masters and Doctoral degrees in second language education.
210 students

from a community-based ESL program
104 students
from a university EAP program
Three main strategies to collect information about the validity of the questionnaire
To examine the content validity of the isolated (ISO) and integrated (INT)
To assess
the reliability of the integrated and isolated subscales
To empirically
demonstrate
construct-related
validity
44 ITEMS
8 GROUPS
2 DIMENSIONS
Isolated or Integrated
Relate to Effectiveness, preferences or Beliefs
‘I find it helpful if the instructor teaches a grammar
point on its own before or after reading a text’
20.
‘I find it helpful if the instructor teaches a grammar
point before reading a text’
20.
‘I find it helpful to learn a grammar point before I read it in a text’
20.
learner
i
f
I can pay attention to grammar while reading or listening to a passage.
I can learn grammar while reading or listening to a passage.
44
20
10
ISOLATED
10
INTEGRATED
ITEMS
ITEMS
5-point Likert scale
1
1
1
1
1
1
Strongly Agree
Strongly Disagree
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
Language Background
Age
further comments on
their preferences for learning grammar
The community-based ESL program has a settlement
focus with a topic-based syllabus and is publicly funded.
University EAP program
has an academic focus with a skills-based syllabus and is privately funded
Korean, Chinese and Japanese
Spanish, Chinese and a variety
of other languages
20 minutes
All three constructs are based on the assumption that if learners’ attention is drawn to form within communicative practice, they will have the opportunity to make form-meaning connections and receive information about language form right at the time when they need to express messages.
(Bachman, 2004, p. 262; cf. Messick, 1989; Weir,2005)
314 ESL
students
Cronbach’s Alpha index.

This index indicates the degree to which a scale is internally consistent, or reliable (Brown, 2001).
That our questionnaire is measuring what we claim it is measuring, was to perform a principal components analysis (PCA) on the questionnaire items.
PCA is a statistical technique often used in questionnaire development to determine if groups of items go together to form a component or a construct
(Brown et al., 2001; Gorsuch, 1983; Stevens, 2002; Tabachnick and Fidell, 1996;
Wintergerst et al., 2001).
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