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Evolution

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Jennifer Nguyen

on 14 May 2015

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Transcript of Evolution

Major Theories on Evolution
Lamark:



Evolution
Darwin:
Lamark's idea was if an organism wanted to change, it could change by itself and the change can be passed on to offspring. For example, lamark thought if a mother dyed her hair from brown to blond her child would inherit blond hair.
Darwin's main idea was a change would happen overtime in a population due to the their environment, and when they reproduce, their adaptations will be passed on to the offspring.
Connections to Genetics and Meiosis
Lamark:

Lamark thought that the organisms can change their own traits and characteristics and through reproduction, their offspring would also be born with those changed characteristics.
Darwin:
Darwin said their genetics changed due to adaptations and through reproduction their offspring will then change.
Darwin's Influences:
Hutton

(1785)-
He found out that earth was older than we thought, like millions of years old.

Lyel (1833)-
He found out that earth is old too and it's changing due to geological forces such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and erosion.

Lamark(1744-1829)-
He was the first person to recognize the changes of animals like their characteristics. His theories were wrong because he was 100 years before Darwin.

Malthus(1798)-
Malthus found that the human population was growing too fast and we will have to compete for supplies with each other and other species.

Fossil Evidence for Evolution
What are fossils?
Fossils are the remains of prehistoric organisms that are preserved in the form of a mold or cast in a rock. The deeper a fossil is in soil or sediment, the older it is, and the higher the fossil in soil, the younger and more complex it is.

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/fossils

How are fossils used to support evolution?
Fossil are used to support evolution because they show how organisms that are preserved are different from the same organisms today and show how these organisms can evolve.
Geographical Evidence for Evolution
What is considered geographical evidence for evolution?
Geographical evidence for evolution is when organisms are similar in structure but function in different parts of the world.
Examples:
-In different areas, turtle have different neck lengths because of the environment they live in. The environment a turtle lives in requires for it to have longer necks than other turtles in a different environment.
-In the Galapagos Islands, Finches (birds) were were similar and had beaks but the length and how big and its function was different, because they adapted to their environment as each island was different from one another in ways.
- Butterflies in the Taiga and the Deciduous biome were different from each other because one was bigger than the other and they were also different colors. The difference in color was due to their environment, and most butterflies adapt to the color of the environment to camouflage from predators.
Pictures of Geographical Evidence:
Homologous Structures
A homologous structure is an organ or a bone that appears in very different organisms, but appear similar and function similar and seem to be related.
http://evolution.about.com/od/evidence/a/Homologous-Structures.htm
Analogous Structures
Analogous structures are structures that perform similar functions and are similar based on the environment and do not share a common ancestor.
Examples:
-bat wings and fly wings
-shark fins and dolphin fins
-octopus eye and human eye
Examples:
-bat wings, mole foot, human hand
-dog leg, dolphin fin
-human tailbone, monkey tail
Anatomical Evidence for Evolution
What type of evolution is this related to?
Divergent Evolution
What type of evolution is this related to?
Convergent Evolution
Vestigial Structures:
Vestigial Structures are remnants of organs and structure that had a function in an early ancestor.
What type of evolution is this related to?
Relates to all 5 types of evolution
Examples:
-small leg bones found in whales
-human appendix
-plica luminaries (eye)

Embryological Evidence
Embryological Evidence is when embryos of organisms are similar at early stages of development.
In my own words, this means that early embryos are not similar in later stages of development, but in early stages of development.
Biochemical Evidence for Evolution
Different amino acid sequences (Proteins) are similar among many organisms is considered biochemical evidence.
How does this support evolution?
Biochemical evidence supports evolution because many of the same molecules and biochemical processes occur within all living organisms.
Examples:
- Whales and elephants have a similar amino acid sequence and only have 1 difference in their amino acid
- Gorillas and humans, their amino acid sequence is the exact same without a difference
- Whales and shark's amino acid sequence is almost identical except for 3 differences

What is Genetic Variation?
What causes Gene Shuffling?
What are the causes of Mutations?
Reproducing sexually causes there to be various amounts of genes. Gene shuffling is caused by genetic recombination, mutation, and crossing over of chromosomes.
Mutations can happen when DNA fails to copy correctly. External influences such as chemicals or radiation can also cause mutations.
What is a gene pool?
Example of relative allele frequencies in the population:
Polygenetic traits
Polygenetic traits are determined by more than just 1 gene such as height, hair color, and eye color
How many genotype are possible?
There are infinite possibilities.
Examples:
Height
Hair color
Eye color
Directional Selection:
Directional Selection is when organisms at an end of a bell curve have the highest fitness than the organisms in the middle and other end
In my own word, directional selection occurs when an organism with adapted traits to the environment reproduce more and the ones without the adapted trait dies off gradually.
For example, directional selection can occur in Suwanee due to tall people being well adapted to the environment when it comes to playing sports. If the tall people were to live longer because they are well adapted, the shorter population would decrease, and the tall population would increase.
Stabilizing Selection:
Stabilizing selection occurs when the more average people are better fit to survive in the environment.
In my own words, stabilizing selection occurs when a group of average organisms in a species are more well adapted to the environment than one that is not average. The selection of the average organisms are more liked therefore the population will lean towards the average sized organisms.
For example, stabilizing selection in blue eyed people can occur in Suwanee. The people tend to like blue eyed people more, so only the blue eyed people would mate and the other colored eyed people would not find love therefore causing them the decrease in population as they can not mate. The blue eyed people will then start to increase their population.
Disruptive Selection
Disruptive selection is when extreme phenotypes have higher fitness begin to split in half and can lead to speciation.
In my own words, disruptive selection occurs when people with extreme traits are are more adapted and are liked better than the average or intermediate traits.
For example, disruptive selection can occur in Suwanee when really tall people become adapted with the environment and are able to survive and reproduce better than average or short people.
How can disruptive selection lead to speciation?
Disruptive selection can lead to speciation because they are in favor of the extreme individuals. Say for example, short and tall people were better adapted than average people, the average people weren't of any use and less people would want to mate with them and because they were average they didn't have the ability to survive. The average people would then die off, then the short and tall people would soon then reproduce. Overtime, the 2 populations could grow and adapt so much, they won't be able to reproduce with each other.
Microevolution
Microeolution is a change in a gene frequency within a population.
Examples of microevolution:
Antibiotic resistance
Pesticide resistance
What is the founder effect?
The founder effect is an allele frequency change due to a migration of a subgroup of a population.
Example:
An example of this would be having to move in with your stepmother and her child would be an example of the founder effect. I said this because a lot of things would change such as having to share your dad, take orders from your stepmother, listen to your stepmom, and having to get along with her child.

What is the bottleneck effect?
The bottleneck effect takes place when a disaster reduces a major population size and leaves behind organisms that are not representative of the entire population's genetic makeup.
Example:
An example would be when a large series of tornadoes swept through the entire nation. The only 3 states that didn’t get hit was Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. The tornadoes killed everyone in the states that were hit, and the only people left were those in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi.
Macro and Micro Evolution
Similarities
Differences
Macroevolution
Microevolution
- major evolutionary changes overtime
- organism evolves into new species
- organism can no longer mate with their former species
- can lead to speciation
- happens on a big scale (different species)
- evolutions within a given type of species/organism
- organism is still considered same species.
-organism can still mate with the same species
- does not lead to speciation
- happens on a small scale
(same species)
- they are both the study of evolution
- both have changes of a species
- both can involve natural selection, mutation of genes, migration of individuals, and genetic drifiting
Geographical Isolation
Geographical isolation is when 2 populations of the same species are separated by a geographical boundary and they don't recognize each other so they don't mate.
Geographical isolation works by separating 2 different populations naturally and the 2 different populations are separated and adapt to their environment making them 2 different organisms now.
Example in nature:
These owls of the same species were separated by an overgrowth of trees and these species began to mutate and adapt to their new environment and once they reunited they didn't recognize each other so they don't mate.
Own example of geographical isolation:
A group of marshins were separated by a huge meteor that hit the surface of Mars and their population split in half. They couldn't come in contact with each other and later mutated and adapted to their new environment. These marshins were later reunited when the meteor disappeared. The 2 now different marshans didn't recognize each other so they didn't mate.
Behavioral Isolation
Behavioral isolation is when 2 populations of the same species can mate but don't because they have different mating procedures therefore the 2 groups don't mate.
Behavioral isolation works when 2 groups of the same species have different mating calls so they don't mate. This causes for the different group to change and not pass on their genes to each other.
Example in Nature:
These different crickets are capable to mate, but they don't mate with each other, because they are attracted to different tunes that the male uses to attract a female.
And these
crickets have
a certain tune
they will mate to.
Own example of Behavioral Isolation:
There are 2 groups of humans, the giraffes necks and the turtle necks. These 2 groups are able to mate but don't want to because of their different characteristics and mating calls. The giraffe necked ones sing R&B while the turtle necks sing classical music. Their different pick up lines only attract the mates in their group and not of the other group. The 2 groups don't ever mate for over billions of years d they just remain and stick to themselves.
Temporal Isolation
Temporal isolation is when 2 different populations of the same species can mate but don't because of their mating times.
Temporal isolation works when two groups don't mate with each other because they don't mate in the same time period.
The American Toad and the Fowler's Toad are closely related species and can mate but don't due to the time they mate. The American Toad mates during the earl art of the summer while the Fowler's Toad mates later in the summer. Therefore they
don't mate due
to their temporal
isolation.
Example found in Nature:
Own example of Temporal Isolation:
A group of aliens and humans meet each other and decided they wanted an alien/human baby since the can mate with eachother. But they never have their alien/human baby. This was because they mated in different seasons. The humans only mated during the summer and the aliens only mated during the winter to keep themselves warm on their cold planet.
Adaptive Radiation:
Definition:
Adaptive Radiation is the process by which one species evolves and gives rise to many descendant species that occupy different ecological niches.
http://www.classzone.com/cz/books/bio_07/secured/resources/applications/ebook/index_ga.jsp
Divergent Evolution:

Divergent Evolution is evolution of one or more closely related species into different species; resulting from adaptations to different environmental conditions.
http://www.classzone.com/cz/books/bio_07/secured/resources/applications/ebook/index_ga.jsp
Explanation in my own words:
Adaptive Radiation-
Adaptive Radiation is the evolution of different species with the same ancestor, that have different adaptations for their different environments.
Divergent Evolution-
Divergent Evolution is when a species evolves into various species from a common ancestor.
Own example:
Adaptive Radiation:
Aliens of a same ancestor have taken over Earth and are placed all around the world in different environments. These new environments have been a totally new concept for these aliens. They wouldn't be able to live if they did not adapt to the new environment. The aliens adapted to the new enironment and all of the different aliens now had different characteristics due to there extremely different environments.
There are now different humans in the world. There are very common humans with 2, toes and fingers, 4 toes and fingers, 6 toes and fingers, 8 toes and fingers, and 10 toes and fingers. These are due to the external conditions of the weather. The colder the weather, the more fingers they have, the hotter the weather the less fingers they have.
Divergent Evolution:
Convergent Evolution
Convergent evolution is evolution towards similar characteristics in unrelated species, resulting from adaptations to similar environmental conditions.
Explanation in own words:
Organisms that are of different species that lives in the same environment will adapt like each other, therefore they will have same characteristics.
Evolution found in Nature:
The shark, ichthyosaur, dolphins are all different species but they all lived in the same environment so they each adapted like each other so they now look alike.
My own example:
An alien that was born and raised in the human world adapted to the human society. They adapted 5 fingers and characteristics of humans because of there environment.
Human:
Alien:
Coevolution:
Coevolution is the process in which two or more species and evolve in response to changes in each other.
In my own words, coevolution is when 2 organisms change to better suit the survival of each other.
Example in Nature:
A hummingbird changed his beak in order to reach inside the flower for food, and the flower changed its colors to a bright color to attract the bird which will pollinate other flowers.
My own Example:
An iPhone and an Android change and evolve because as one changes, the other copies and changes as well. This is because they are trying to out bid each other in the environment of the market.
Parallel Evolution
Parallel Evolution is the independent evolution of similar traits, starting from a similar ancestral condition
In my own words, is when organisms gradually have similar traits they inherit from their common ancestor from similar environments.
An example of this would be 2 different butterflies such as the Eastern Comma and the Question Mark butterfly which have similar traits like their spots and coloring.
My own example would be regular looking aliens and humans. They both share a similar trait of round heads and 5 fingers, but they are both different.
Eastern Comma
Question Mark
Alien:
Human:
Punctuated Equilibrium
Punctuated Equilibrium is a theory that states that speciation occurs suddenly and rapidly followed by long periods of little evolutionary change.
In my own words, it's a theory that says speciation happens out-of-the-blue and quickly followed by long and slow periods of small evolutionary change.
Example in nature:
My own Example:
An example would be butterflies and their sudden change of colors and characteristics.
My own example would be humans who suddenly evolve and turn green to blend in with the trees out of the blue.
Gradualism
Gradualism is the principle that states that changes result from slow changes over a long period of time.
In my own words its takes time for things too change. It just doesn't happen in an instance.
Example in Nature:
The little land formations of earth took millions of years to form, it didn't just appear.
My own Example:
People change slowly overtime. You start as a baby, then slowly become an adult. A baby doesn't just automatically turn into a full grown adult.
The Urey-Miller Experiment
It is a chemical experiment that simulated the conditions thought at the time to be present of the early Earth, and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miller%E2%80%93Urey_experiment )
It is important because it was the first experiment to demonstrate that biologically important molecules : amino acids, nucleic acids, sugars, lipids, etc. could be made from nonliving material using natural processes.
(http://www.weegy.com/?ConversationId=LNM2HVC4 )
Endosymbiotic Theory
The endosymbiotic theory explains the origin of chloroplasts, Mitochondria, and their double membranes
http://biology.kenyon.edu/HHMI/Biol113/the%20endosymbiotic%20theory.htm
Why is it important?
It’s important because of natural selection. Darwin stated that organisms that are fit enough to succeed in the game of survival have a good chance of passing on their genes to the next generation. Any survival or reproductive advantage can help a species out-compete other species or simply avoid becoming extinct itself. It seems likely that the first eukaryotic cells gained a slight edge when the mitochondria came along. The mitochondria and their hosts relied more and more on each other in order to survive. Eventually, neither could succeed alone, but as a team they produced millions of descendants, establishing a whole new domain of life.
This is related to genetics, because the closer the amino acid sequence (DNA) the more likely the animals came from a common origin.
A gene pool is the total number of genes of every individual in an interbreeding population.
An example would be when a tall person mates with a short person, there could be many different genotypes. This is the same with the beetle population, there are many different colored beetles.
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evo_22
https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080331193644AAJT7TY
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evo_20
http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Gene_pool
BY: Jennifer Nguyen & Summer Sterling
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