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Five Vertebrates

This is a presentation about our five favourite vertebrates
by

Sanya K

on 19 November 2013

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Transcript of Five Vertebrates

The panda`s bone structure is the bones the panda contains. Its paw looks like a paw except it has a sixth thumb. Its foot looks like a foot except it has a sixth toe.
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Amphibians
Mexican Axolotl
Reptiles
Grey Rat snake
Fish
Butterfly fish
Birds
Peacocks
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Giant Panda
About
peacocks
Peacocks are warm blooded. They're basically
blue
and
green
. Their tail feathers spread out in a way that is called a distinctive way which is about more than 60% percent of the peacock's body length.
Structural Characteristics

Giant pandas have a true coelom and a closed circulatory system. Giant pandas have an endoskeleton and are warm blooded mammals. It keeps all of their cells supplied with nutrients from the intestine (digestive system) and oxygen from the lungs (respiratory system). It also removes their waste products, carbon dioxide to the lungs and the nitrogenous wastes to the kidneys.

Baby panda takes first steps
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male
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Giant pandas breed between March and May when the female begins to indicate her want to mate by making a series of groans and bleats to attract a male. After a gestation period that lasts for around five months, the female Giant Panda gives birth to one or two cubs in the base of a hollow tree or cave. Panda Bear cubs are very underdeveloped at birth measuring as little as 15cm and weighing only 100g, they are made even more vulnerable by the fact that they are also blind and hairless and don't begin to crawl until they are nearly three months old. Even if a female gives birth to twins she can only care for one that rides on her back until it is 6 months old and is then able to precariously trot beside her. Panda Bear cubs are weaned when they are around a year old but don't leave their mother until they are 18 months old.
How they feed
Body structures
Reproduction system
Circulatory system
By Sanya and Pricilla
Giant panda skeleton
Panda adaptations
Giant pandas have a lot of adaptations. I t has some important adaptations you might want to hear.
Pandas have a very special digestive system because bamboo is very strong so thats why they have a special lining in their digestive system to keep it from ripping and tearing
The panda has a large head so the the bigger and stronger jaws can fit in
The panda has a sixth toe and a thumb to grip bamboo and tear off the leaves
Lastly another adaptation is strong and smooth molars that help them chew rough bamboo
Peacocks have a really interesting diet. They eat animals such as snakes, ticks, termites, ants, locusts, ants, parts of plants and more.
Termites
Plants
Snakes
Panda Mom and her cub
Ticks
They are also warm blooded like most mammals
Body shape and description

Giant pandas are bear-like in shape with striking black and white markings. The "Giant" Pandas are hardly "Giants". It would take about forty (40) giant pandas to weigh as much as one elephant. Adult giant pandas have a length of 160 to 180 centimeters (5 1/4 to 6 feet). The weight of an adult male giant panda is normally between 80 and 125 kilograms (176 and 276 pounds) with males typically weighing about 10% to 20% more than females -- about the same size as the American black bear. However, unlike the black bear, giant pandas do not hibernate and cannot walk on their hind legs.Giant panda bears have a massive head, heavy body, short tail (approximately 5 inches), rounded ears and plantigrade feet (i.e., both heel and toe make contact with the ground when walking in a manner similar to humans). The throat of the giant panda has an esophagus with a tough, horny lining to protect the bear from injury by bamboo splinters. The stomach is similarly protected with its thick muscular wall linings.Giant pandas have forepaws which are extremely flexible. They have an enlarged wrist bone (the radial sesamoid) that works in the manner of an opposable thumb. This highly functional thumb allows the panda to manipulate bamboo stems and leaves,
How they feed
Ants
Pandas usually eat while sitting in upright position. Sitting this way they can use their front paws to hold their food
Locusts
How it breathes
A panda cub
Since people like us have lungs to breathe, well peacocks have lungs to breathe too.But they have these special air sacs that allows the air flow from one direction through the lungs.
The Giant Panda is a mammal. They breath oxygen, from the air as other mammals do. The Giant Panda breath air into their lungs through their mouth or nose this supply of air passes through the narrowing bronchioles, finally reaching the Alveoli membrane .There the carbon dioxide is bound in the red blood cells. As this gas is released the oxygen is absorbed into the red blood cells,and the carbon dioxide is then exhaled out, to clear the body of the giant panda.
How do Giant pandas breathe
Structural characteristics
How they reproduce
Reproductive system
Butterfly fish form mating pairs that they remain with for life. Butterfly fish release their eggs into the water which form part of the plankton (it is because of this that many butterfly fish eggs are accidentally eaten by animals that live on plankton). When the eggs hatch, the baby butterfly fish (known as fry) develop armoured plates on their bodies to protect them when they are so vulnerable. As the butterfly fish gets, older these plates disappear. Butterfly fish have an average lifespan of 8 to 10 years although some of the larger butterfly fish species are known to get to much older.


Before the peacock can reproduce, the male peacocks which are called peahens bring out their feathers to impress or to attract the female peacocks which are called peafowls.
Circulatory system
The circulatory system in most fishes is simple, consisting of a two-chambered heart that forces blood forwards through the gills, then to the head, and from the head back to the rest of the body through a major artery situated beneath the spine. The rate of circulation is slower in fishes than in other vertebrates
Body shape and description
A small, disc-shaped fish with a pointed snout and prominent spines at the leading edge of the dorsal fin. The body is pale silver or white, with a thin black vertical bar running through the eye and two thicker vertical body bars . The fins at the rear of the body are black and edged in white. Sexes appear similar and juveniles resemble adults with a large black spot, ringed in white, at the back of the dorsal fin


Adaptations
Butterfly fish have fake eye spots, black dots on the posterior part of the body, to confuse predators into thinking they are swimming in the opposite direction, while their real eyes are disguised by a dark band or other colour patterns.
They have long snouts to help them pick food
They are cold blooded vertebrates like most fishes
Fish have features that
help them live in the water and breathe with the use
of their gills. The gills allow oxygen to be taken out
of the water as the fish swims.Gills perform the gas exchange between the water and the fish's blood. They allow the fish to breathe oxygen in the water.
How it breathes
How it feeds
Gills enable the Butterflyfish to breathe. Gills consist of thin sheets of tissue containing blood vessels. As water passes over the gills oxygen is absorbed into the blood stream Carbon dioxide passes out into the water. The gills are protected by a large bony plate called an operculum. Some fish species however have lungs and breathe air.
Adaptations
Peacocks have eyes on the side of their head to see all around. They also have beautiful feathers to attract male or females which are called mates. Peacocks have this kind of sound to communicate with other peacocks. They have very sharp beaks to chew the food easily and they also have wings to fly from tree to tree.
Structural characteristics
Reproductive system
The position of the heart varies among species.The heart has three chambers: right and left atria and one ventricle. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation and the left receives oxygenated blood from lungs via the left and right pulmonary veins. The ventricle has internal ridges that enable a considerable functional separation between the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. It is divided into three subchambers: the cavum pulmonale, cavum venosum and cavum arteriosum. The grey rat snake is lo a warm blooded vertebrate.
Circulatory system
Body shape and description
Mexican axolotls are found in high altitude lakes near Mexico City. They are cold blooded.
The gray ratsnake is highly variable in colouration and pattern depending upon the age of the snake. Hatchlings have a pattern of dark grey or black blotches and spots over a background of light grey. As the snake ages, this pattern fades and the light grey darkens. Adults may be all black or black with some blotches visible. The chin and throat is white or cream coloured. The ventral colouration varies greatly from white to salmon to dark gray; a checkerboard pattern is typically present.
Between March and May, snakes begin to emerge from their winter hibernation. After a few weeks, they begin to seek out a mate, typically in late April, May, and early June. In Ontario the mating season runs from late May to mid-June. Males tend to wait for the females to pass through their territory, and with the use of pheromones, communicate and initiate the mating process with the female. Males attracted to the same female will engage in combat for the right to mate. The successful suitor approaches the female and flickers his tongue over her. He aligns his body with hers and attempts to wrap his tail around her tail with their vents nearly touching. Some males grasp the female with the mouth, to hold her in place and prevent her from moving away. The male then erects his hemipenes and inserts it into the female's cloaca while several small spines anchor the hemipenes firmly. Mating may last only a few minutes or span a few hours. During the breeding season, females will mate with multiple males and produce a clutch of eggs sired by different fathers.
Adaptations
The gray ratsnake is primarily active at night. It is both a terrestrial burrower and extremely good climber. It is found under rocks and boards, and in trees under bark and within knot holes and palm fronds. It will often move into barns and other outbuildings in June during the sparrow and swallow nesting season.These snakes tend to be shy and, if possible, will avoid being confronted. If snakes are confronted by danger, they tend to freeze and remain motionless or they may hiss and flatten their necks in a menacing manner. Some adults attempt to further protect themselves. When threatened they will vibrate their tail. They coil their body and vibrate their tails in dead leaves which simulates the sound of a rattle. This may fool other animals into believing they are venomous. If the snakes continue to be provoked, they will strike. Ratsnakes may also produce a foul-smelling musk and release it on the predator if they are picked up, spreading the musk around with their tail. The musk acts as a deterrent. Ratsnakes are excellent swimmers.
How it feeds
How they breathe
As the name implies, this species preys upon rats and other rodents. It also feeds on small birds (and their eggs) and other warm-blooded prey of suitable size. Rat snakes in general are primarily known as rodent eaters; however other food preferences do exist. As juveniles, rat snakes eat small lizards, baby mice, and an occasional small frog. Adult rat snakes have a diet mainly consisting of mice and rats, but also include chipmunks, moles, and other small rodents. Rat snakes kill their larger prey by constriction.

How it Breathes
Fun fact:
The grey rat snake is the longest snake in Canada
No Snakes don't have a diaphram as we do so must use muscles along their sides to expand and contract their lungs. Most snakes have only one main, functional lung but it functions much as ours does to obtain oxygen. When a snake is feeding on a large prey item it can also push its trachea (windpipe) off to the side so it can still breathe with a mouth full of food.
The lungs of a snake must fit inside their long body. Their structure is somewhat different from those of most animals. In most snakes the right lung is usually the largest and extends for over a 1/3 of the body. The left lung is then VERY small or absent. In effect, snakes only have one lung. During feeding, when the mouth may be blocked with food for up to an hour, the snake is able to breathe by extending a muscular extension of its windpipe, called the epiglottis, from the bottom of the mouth. It protrudes from underneath the prey to reach air and allow the snake to breathe. If you watch the snake eat carefully you will see a hole inside the mouth on the bottom lip, this is the windpipe.
Normal eggs are dark brown . Axolotls can breed when they are about 6 months old. The male axolotl deposits packets of his sperm and then leads the female over them. She takes some of the sperm into her body through an opening called a cloaca. Inside her body the sperm mixes with her eggs. In the next day or two the female lays her eggs on leaves of plants or on rocks. When they hatch, in about two weeks time, the the young axolotls are about a centimeter long and look like frog tadpoles with legs.The eggs take about 2 to 3 weeks to hatch. Development seems to be optimal when the eggs are attached to plants. This is due to the circulation of water around the egg, aiding gaseous exchange.Assuming the eggs are fertile, the majority of the eggs should hatch if kept in well-aerated water.
How it reproduces
They breathe through gills that look like feathers. An axolotl has three pairs of feather-like gills at the back of its head. As water passes through the gills, the axolotl takes in the oxygen from it. From time to time an axolotl will come to the water surface to gulp a breath of air.
Body shape and description
There are 5 different color variations in Axolotls. The wild types are either olive green to dark grey or brown, whilst the black, albino and leucistic (golden colored) Axolotls are more typically found in the pet trade.All Axolotls keep their larval appearance throughout their lives and have 3 noticeable gills branching out from either side of their neck area. These gills have a feathery appearance. Axolotls also have four lizard like legs and a long, flat tail.

Fun Fact: If one of their body parts is bitten off they can grow it back. For example arms, legs, brain and even their heart
Adaptations
They can regenerate body parts if they are bitten off. For example the brain,heart, kidneys, arms and legs
An important adaptation of the axolotl is the three pair’s external gills stalked behind their head and they are used to move oxygenated water.
Another structure adaptation of the axolotl is that they look different to each other because there are many different colours of axolotl
The axolotl is emotionless most of the time but they are usually active in the early morning to early evening.
How it feeds
Axolotls eat worms, insects, small fish, and just about anything else that can fit inside their mouth and swallow whole, including other salamanders. The name "Ambystoma" means cup-mouth, and axolotls do have large, wide mouths. When an axolotl wants to eat something, it opens its mouth suddenly and water rushes in, along with the food or anything else around (such as parts of other axolotls, or pieces of gravel). This vacuum action often results in a sudden lurch of the axolotl up into the water and then the animal settles down again.
This is the end of our five vertebrates presentation. We hope you enjoyed it.
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