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Copy of Biology Chapter 15 Section 3 Evidences for Evolution

Miller Levine Dragonfly Book
by

Mathew Rambo

on 27 January 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Biology Chapter 15 Section 3 Evidences for Evolution

Evidences for Evolution Darwin compared processes in nature to artificial selection. Evolution by Natural Selection Inherited Variation and Artificial Selection
In this book, Darwin proposed a mechanism for evolution called natural selection.

Along with this mechanism, he presented evidence that evolution has been taking place for millions of years—and continues in all living things. Publication of On the Origin of Species An inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival is called a(an)
homologous structure.
vestigial organ.
adaptation.
analogous structure. Differences among individuals of a single species are referred to as
artificial selection.
genetic variation.
survival of the fittest.
environmental adaptation. The scientist who motivated Darwin to publish On the Origin of Species was
Alfred Russel Wallace.
Charles Lyell.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.
Thomas Malthus. Homologous Body Structures

Structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissues are called homologous structures. Evidence of Evolution Evidence of Evolution Darwin realized that high birth rates and a shortage of life's basic resources would force organisms to compete for resources. The Struggle for Existence  Darwin noted that plant and animal breeders would breed only the largest hogs, the fastest horses, or the cows that produced the most milk.

Darwin termed this process artificial selection. Inherited Variation and Artificial Selection Evidence used by Darwin to support the idea of evolution included all the following EXCEPT
fossils that demonstrate change over time.
the genetic mechanism by which useful traits are inherited.
the geographic distribution of living things.
the presence of many homologous structures in plants and animals. Changes that increase a species' fitness in its environment over time are due to
the principle of common descent.
the geographic distribution of that species.
natural selection.
habitat selection. Not all homologous structures serve important functions.

The organs of many animals are so reduced in size that they are just traces of homologous organs in other species.

These organs are called vestigial organs. Evidence of Evolution Over time, natural selection results in changes in the inherited characteristics of a population.

These changes increase a species' fitness in its environment. Evolution by Natural Selection The ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment is fitness.

Darwin proposed that fitness is the result of adaptations.

An adaptation is any inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival. "Survival of the Fittest" Darwin Presents His Case Geographical Distribution

Similar, But Unrelated Species

Called Convergent Evolution Evidence of Evolution Darwin argued that living things have been evolving on Earth for millions of years.

Evidence for this process include:
the fossil record
geographical distribution
homologous structures
similarities in early development, or embryology
Universal genetic code with obvious relationships Evidence of Evolution Because of its similarities to artificial selection, Darwin referred to the survival of the fittest as natural selection.

In natural selection, the traits being selected contribute to an organism's fitness in its environment. Evolution by Natural Selection Post-anal
tail Pharyngeal
pouches Human embryo Chick embryo (LM) Similarities in Embryology

The embryos of many vertebrates are very similar.

The same groups of embryonic cells develop in the same order and in similar patterns to produce the tissues and organs of all vertebrates. Evidence of Evolution ...and he did this all without
any knowledge of what we
now know with genetics. Heike Crab What do you know about
competition and how it
affects those involved? Is high fitness always good camo? The Fossil Record 

By comparing fossils from older rock layers with fossils from younger layers, scientists can document that life on Earth has changed over time. Belgian Blue Analogous
Structures human (I), dog (II), pig (III), cow (IV), tapir (V) and horse (VI) This characteristic among tetrapods suggests common ancestry.
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