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old ethics presentation
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If my first and chief reason for worshipping God had to be a belief that a super-Frankenstein would blast me to hell if I did not, then I hope I should have the decency to tell this being, who is named Almighty God, to go ahead and blast. (cited in Baeltz, P. (1977). Ethics and Belief. London: Sheldon Press. 68) The knowledge of good and evil seems to be the aim of all ethical reflection. The first task of Christian ethics is to invalidate this knowledge. In launching this attack on the underlying assumptions of all other ethics Christian ethics stands so completely alone that it becomes questionable whether there is any purpose in speaking of Christian ethics at all...Man in his origin only knows one thing: God. It is only in the unity of his knowledge that he knows of other men, of things, and God in all things. (Bonhoeffer, D. (1964). Ethics (N. H. Smith, Trans.). London: Collins. 17) A. Should ethics be religious? http://ganymede.chester.ac.uk/index.php?page_id=1225585 see B. Models Christian ethics Other ethics Christian ethics Other ethics Christian ethics Other ethics discontinuous continuous identical (ethics autonomous) C. Other kinds of ethics i. Other traditions of religious ethics ii. Aristotelian ethics iii. Kantian ethics iv. Utilitarian ethics v. Hedonistic ethics vii. Sceptical theories: Emotivism Relativism vi. Intuitionism Biblicism Derived principles Key themes Imitation of Christ Narrative Incoherence Critical Retrieval Culture Gap Rejection Modes of ethical hermeneutics Refusal of the hermeneutical question Possible strategies Critiques Post-critical strategies Immorality Progressive revelation Contextual reading Social, religious, canonical Marcionism Marcion: heretic d. c. 160 http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t95.e3643 Reject OT creator god in favour of NT god of love Non-viable strategies E.g. Hauerwas, 'Unleashing Scripture' E.g. Hays, The Moral Vision of the New Testament E.g. Thomas a Kempis (c. 1380-1471), WWJD http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t95.e5775 E.g. Joseph Fletcher's focus on neighbour love in Situation Ethics E.g. Christian Feminist rejection of patriarchal texts E.g. Wayne Meeks on slavery E.g. John Barton, Eithcs of the Old Testament References & further reading Bartholomew, C., Chaplin, J., Song, R., & Wolters, A. (Eds.). (2002). A Royal Priesthood? The Use of the Bible Ethically and Politically. A Dialogue with Oliver O'Donovan. Carlisle: Paternoster.
Barton, J. (1998). Ethics and the Old Testament. London: SCM.
Bauckham, R. (1989). The Bible in Politics. London: SPCK.
Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Fiorenza, E. S. (1983). In Memory of Her: A Feminist Theological Reconstruction of Christian Origins. London: SCM.
Fletcher, J. (1966). Situation Ethics. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox.
Hauerwas, S. (1993). Unleashing the Scripture: Freeing the Bible from Captivity to America. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press.
Hays, R., B. (1997). The moral vision of the New Testament: community, cross, new creation: a contemporary introduction to New Testament ethics. Edinburgh: T&T Clark.
Meeks, W. A. (1996). 'The "Haustafeln" and American Slavery: A Hermeneutical Challenge'. In E. H. Lovering & J. L. Sumney (Eds.), Theology and ethics in Paul and his interpreters: essays in honor of Victor Paul Furnish (pp. 232–253). Nashville, Tennessee: Abingdon Press.
Ogletree, T. (2003). The Use of the Bible in Christian Ethics. Louisville: Westminster John Knox.
Schluter, M., & Ashcroft, J. (Eds.). (2005). Jubilee Manifesto: A Framework, Agenda & Strategy for Christian Social Reform. Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press.
Wright, C. J. H. (1983). Living as the People of God: The Relevance of Old Testament Ethics. Leicester: IVP. A. Difficulties
Odd categories (See John Barton, Ethics and the Old Testament) B. Categories of Law (Aquinas)
Ceremonial See Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologia, II-I, q. 99 C. Three uses of the law (Reformation)
Didactic (Calvin) Lays down death penalty for adultery (Lev. 20:10, Deut. 22:22)
Envisages mutilation as punishment for assault (‘an eye for an eye’ Ex. 21:23-4, Lev. 24:19-30, Deut. 23:19)
Treats those with various skin diseases as outcasts
Approves massacre of whole cities by Israelites (Josh. 6, 11)
Saul loses divine approval because insufficiently zealous in carrying out God’s command to annihilate everything that breathes among the Amalekitest Decalogue addressed to free men: says nothing about the rights or duties of women, children, slaves E.g. Ezra and Nehemiah insist that intermarriage is unacceptable; contemporary book of Ruth praises her for marrying an Israelite. E.g. healing related to ritual purity Law causes us to seek grace
“from the law comes the knowledge of sin” Rom. 3:20 Law is a restraint from sin
“the law is laid down not for the innocent but for the lawless and disobedient” 1 Tim. 1:9 Law is a guide for the Christian
“love is the fulfilling of the law” Rom. 13:10 Bible Principles Situation Bible Key themes Hermeneutic Situation A. Richard Hays The fourfold task of New Testament ethics:
d. pragmatic reading the text carefully placing the text in canonical context relating the text to our situation living the text Key themes Community Cross New creation “Present your bodies as a living sacrifice” (Rom. 12: 2)
“Now you are the body of Christ, and individually members of it” (1 Cor 12:27)
What should we do? (not What should I do?) “I want to know Christ, and the power of his resurrection and the sharing of his sufferings by becoming like him in his death, if somehow I may attain the resurrection from the dead.” (1 Phil 3:10)
“Jesus’ death on a cross is the paradigm for faithfulness to God in this world”
Community called to take up cross and follow Jesus “the whole creation has been groaning in labour pains until now, and not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the first fruits of the spirit, groan inwardly while we wait for adoption, the redemption of our bodies (Rom 8:22-3)
We are in suspense between Jesus’ resurrection and parousia
Eschatology makes a difference for our ethics but... what about Love Liberation “Love the Lord your God with all your heart, and love your neighbour as yourself” (Mk 12: 28-34) - Good Samaritan
“Love one another as I have loved you” (Jn 13:34-5)
“Faith, hope, and love abide, and the greatest of these is love” (1 Cor 13:13)
“Whoever does not love, does not know God, for God is love” (1 Jn 4:8) “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to bring good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives, and recovery of sight to the blind.” (Lk 4:18)
“With freedom Christ has set us free” (Gal 5:1)
“the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to decay and will obtain the freedom of the glory of the children of God” (Rom 8:21) B. The Sermon on the Mount How interpret the Sermon for ethics? Just do it Tolstoy: obey it-no oaths (no legal system); non-violence (no participation in army, police, use of force); give away all possessions (no private property)
Origen: Jesus tells us that it lies within our power to observe injunctions, and we shall be liable to judgement if we transgress them Unrealistic Doestoyevsky (Grand Inquisitor): judged humanity too highly
Joseph Klausner: presents an 'extremist morality' that 'has not proved possible in practice' 'too high an ideal for ordinary mankind, and even for the man of more than average moral calibre’
Reinhold Niebuhr: radical ideal concerned with individual attainment of moral perfection, which no one can fulfil, and which cannot be applied in human social or political life Monastic Aquinas: counsel of perfection, not for ordinary Christians Interim ethic Schweitzer: Jesus expected the imminent arrival of the Kingdom of God
Jesus’ ethics not sustainable in longer term 1st use of the law Lutheran: impossible demand, drives us to seek God’s grace Two Kingdoms Lutheran: two kingdoms - spiritual and civil
Christians as individuals should observe its precepts: spiritual realm
As officeholders, they are in the civil realm and it does not apply link to eschatology Further reading Countryman, L. W. (2001). Dirt, greed and sex: sexual ethics in the New Testament and their implications for today. London: SCM Press.
Daly, R. J. (1982). 'The New Testament and the Early Church'. In J. T. Culliton (Ed.), Non-Violence — Central to Christian Spirituality: Perspectives from Scripture to the Present (pp. 33–62). New York; Toronto: Edwin Mellen Press.
Hays, R., B. (1997). The moral vision of the New Testament: community, cross, new creation: a contemporary introduction to New Testament ethics. Edinburgh: T&T Clark.
Houlden, J. L. (1992). Ethics and the New Testament.
Matera, F. J. (1996). New Testament Ethics: The Legacies of Jesus and Paul. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.
Schrage, W. (1988). The Ethics of the New Testament (D. E. Green, Trans.). Philadelphia: Fortress Press. Hideki Tojo, minister of war and premier of
Japan throughout the Second World War Justice Henri Bernard:
“There is no doubt in my mind that such a war of aggression is and always has been a crime in the eyes of reason and universal conscience—expressions of natural law upon which an international tribunal can and must base itself to judge the conduct of the accused tendered to it…[The natural law] is the law shared by all individuals and all nations…It exists outside and above nations. Although opinions differ as to its nature, its existence is not seriously contested or contestable.” International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Trial of Japanese War Criminals, Transcript and Documents, Judgment of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, vol. 4, Dissenting Opinion of Justice Henri Bernard, 10, 18, cited in John Appleman, Military Tribunals and International Crimes (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1954), 261. Questions about natural law • Are any actions always wrong?
• Is everyone morally responsible for not doing these actions?
• Should every reasonable person agree on what these actions are?
• How would you explain why these actions are wrong to a sceptic? Aristotle (384-322 BC) Stoic Philosophy (3rd-1st centuries BC) St. Paul Justin Martyr (110-65 AD) Augustine (354-430 AD) Aquinas on Natural Law Criticisms of Natural Law Nature teleological: everything has a purpose
Virtue is excellence in fulfilling one’s purpose
Use of reason is peculiar to human animals
So human excellence is the fullest development of the use of reason
Final goal of all persons is happiness: a life of activity in accordance with reason God is everywhere and in every human being
Fate and providence are one: absolutely nothing happens except by the will of God
Goodness is willingly to accept the will of God, rather than struggling against it
Supreme evil is emotion, which opposes the will
Should be able to see the death of our dearest ones and say only that it is the will of God “When Gentiles, who do not possess the law, do instinctively what the law requires, these, though not having the law, are a law to themselves. They show that what the law requires is written on their hearts, to which their own conscience also bears witness.” (Rom 2: 14-15a) “God sets before every race of mankind that which is always and universally just, as well as all righteousness; and every race knows that adultery, and fornication, and homicide, and such like are sinful; and though they all commit such practices, yet they do not escape from the knowledge that they act unrighteously when they do so, with the exception of those possessed with an unclean spirit, and who have been debased by education, by wicked customs, and by sinful institutions, and who have lost, or rather quenched and put under, their natural ideas.” (Dialogue with Trypho the Jew) The eternal law of God underlies everything: ‘the divine reason or the will of God commanding the natural order to be respected and forbidding its disruption’ (Contra Faustum 22,27)
‘The idea of the eternal law, which is impressed on us, is the idea by which it is just that everything is perfectly ordered’ (On the Freedom of the Will 1,6)
Peace is that ‘tranquility which is to be found in the right ordering of everything’ (City of God bk. 19, 13,1) Natural law is the participation of rational creatures in God’s eternal law
First thing that strikes us about anything is that it exists, and it is immediately apparent that we cannot say it exists and that it does not exists (first principle of logic: non-contradiction)
Similarly, since there is always a purpose to what we do, we always ask whether a proposed action fits with our basic desires, i. e. whether it is good.
First principle of natural law, true for and known by everyone: ‘do good and avoid evil’
as descend into further detail, may be exceptions to principles, and knowledge of the law may be blocked by emotion, or bad habit, or evil disposition Hume: can’t get an ‘ought’ from an ‘is’ (world contains facts, not values)
fundamental, intractable, moral disagreement makes natural law implausible
development of moral awareness over time: e. g. slavery Link to Sophocles' Antigone: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TWksyKZz_fE&feature=PlayList&p=5321CB5DC1092F31&index=3 A. What is a morally good life? B. How do we live a morally good life? C. Aquinas on the virtues Theological virtues Cardinal virtues prudence justice fortitude temperance faith hope charity D. Kant's miserable miser E. Narrative ethics Seating plan for TH5031 class on 17/1/11 The case for liberationist ethics Feminism and ethics Liberation theology and ethics Enrique Dussel: 'An ethic of liberation' Questions for liberationist ethics The ethics of Christian ethics? 1. Dives and Lazarus on a global scale Story of Dives & Lazarus:
http://bible.oremus.org/?ql=131954565 United Nations Human Development Programme
http://www.undp.org 2. Thinking about property Bible Church tradition Philosophy & economics Tertullian (c. 160 - c. 225): God always justifies the poor and damns the rich
Clement of Alexandria (c. 150 - c. 215): rich saved by giving to needy
John of Chrysostom (c. 347–407) : property brings contention
Gregory of Nazianzus (329/30–389/90): private property resulted from the Fall
Ambrose (c. 339–97): God intended earth to be common possession
symbiotic relationship between rich and poor: by giving to the poor rich atone for their sins and receive intercessions of poor
Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225– c. 1274): positive law gives right of procuring property, but should be used as common; theft in urgent need not theft
Martin Luther (1483-1546): salvation by grace removed theological legitimation of poverty: poor sinful, rich can't be saved by almsgiving
John Locke (1632–1704): property created by mixing labour with goods
John Wesley (1703–91): gain all you can; save all you can; give all you can Old Testament
• land belongs to God (Ps 24)
• legitimate possession protected by Decalogue
• accumulation of wealth, or worsening of poverty countered by Jubilee (Lev. 25)
• exploitation of poor denounced by prophets: Amos, Isaiah, Micah
• almsgiving atones for sin (Sir. 3:30)
• warning not to keep needy waiting (Sir. 4:1-6)
• astonishing concern for poverty and riches: beatitudes/woes, camels & needles, Dives & Lazarus, sower, radical poverty of discipleship
• but not rigorous asceticism: support by wealthy women, Good Samaritan, lend without hope of return, Zacchaeus
• Acts love communion, harsh consequences for cheats (Acts 5)
• riches plunge people into harmful desires (1 Tim 6:6-10) Rousseau
• property departure from state of nature, fatal concept with horrific results
• private property is the means and realization of the alienation of labour
• property is means of tyranny; crime of theft is product of authoritarian society; private property is theft
• operations of the free market benefit all: meritocracy
• welfare encourages dependency; should reduce benefits to give incentives to work
• rich benefit poor by consumption: ‘trickle down effect’
• poverty necessary by-product of capitalism: poor are victims of system, not blameworthy
• need to constrain the market and redistribute incomes to reduce inequality 12. War and peace 1. A nation at war 2. The Bible 3. Church History 4. Just War Tradition Pope Urban II Pope Urban II at Council of Clermont in 1095:
Oh race of the Franks, we learn that in some of your provinces no one can venture on the road by day or by night without injury or attack by highwaymen, and no one is secure even at home. Let us then re-enact the law of our ancestors known as the Truce of God. And now that you have promised to maintain peace among yourselves you are obligated to succour your brethren in the East, menaced by an accursed race, utterly alienated from God. The Holy Sepulchre of our Lord is polluted by the filthiness of an unclean nation. Recall the greatness of Charlemagne. O most valiant soldiers, descendents of invincible ancestors, be not degenerate. Let all hatred depart from you, all quarrels end, all wars cease. Start upon the road to the Holy Sepulchre to wrest that land from the wicked race and subject it to yourselves. (as cited by Bainton, 1960, 111–2) Capture of Jerusalem 1099, from medieval manuscript Raymond of Agiles's account of the capture of Jerusalem, 1099
Some of our men (and this was more merciful) cut off the heads of their enemies; others shot them with arrows, so that they fell from the towers; others tortured them longer by casting them into the flames. Piles of heads, hands, and feet were to be seen in the streets of the city. It was necessary to pick one's way over the bodies of men and horses. But these were small matters compared to what happened at the temple of Solomon, a place where religious services are ordinarily chanted. What happened there? If I tell the truth, it will exceed your powers of belief. So let it suffice to say this much at least, that in the temple and portico of Solomon, men rode in blood up to their knees and the bridle reins. Indeed, it was a just and splendid judgment of God, that this place should be filled with the blood of the unbelievers, when it had suffered so long from their blasphemies. (as cited by Bainton, 1960, 112–3) jus ad bellum jus in bello Biblical wars Visions of peace 2010 Debate Pacifist view
just war tradition self-serving in justifying violence
real danger in violence escalating from particular cases to others
non-violence is an effective means of resistance
context of living in a country at war
in war soldiers steal, rape, kill civilians and torture Just war view
agree that Just War tradition has not always been used well: must be last resort
non-violence always the best way, but not always effective
in some cases, something has to be done, e.g. challenging Hitler
alternative of renouncing violence in all circumstances is worse
defensive violence justifiable, on small and large scale
violence comes in other forms, e.g. use of language, so can't just focus on physical violence Abortion legalized in UK in 1967 (text of act http://www.statutelaw.gov.uk/content.aspx?activeTextDocId=1181037) A. Current context B. Bible Exodus 21.223: 'When people who are fighting injure a pregnant woman so that there is a miscarriage, and yet no further harm follows, the one responsible shall be fined what the woman’s husband demands, paying as much as the judges determine. If any harm follows, then you shall give life for life.'
Jeremiah 1.5: 'Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you; I appointed you a prophet to the nations.' (cf. Ps. 139.16; Isa. 49.1)
Stories of conception of John the Baptist and Jesus in Luke 1: http://bible.oremus.org/?ql=133782784 C. Church tradition Early church was distinctive in prohibiting all abortions.
Medieval theologians differentiated between abortion before 'animation' or 'ensoulment'; challenged in 17th cent.
19th century theologians argued that removing the fetus from the womb to save the mother’s life is not necessarily direct killing.
Catholic theologians stress continuity from conception to birth and most oppose abortion except to save mother’s life.
Others believe that a wider justification of abortion can be given where there will be serious consequences for the health of the mother.
Feminist theological ethics privileges women's experience and dangers of male oppression in decisions about their bodies D. Status question? Pre-conception Conception Birth E. Exception question? abortion never permissible?
permissible to save life of mother?
permissible in cases of rape and incest?
permissible when risk to health of mother or children?
permissible where risk of baby being born with serious handicap?
permissible whenever woman requests it? A. The challenge B. The response Biodiversity decline: IUCN List Endangered Species - humans have increased the species extinction rate by up to 1000 times (http://www.iucnredlist.org/)
Rapid increase in land used for cultivation to 24% of land area
20% of coral reefs lost and further 20% degraded in last decades of 20th C
Water impounded in dams quadrupled since 1960: 3-6 times more than held in rivers
Nitrogen flows in terrestrial ecosystems have doubled since 1960
Concentration of CO2 has increased by 32% since 1750, 60% of increase since 1959.
Clear evidence of global warming as a result of human activity (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: http://www.ipcc.ch)
(Statistics from Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) (http://www.millenniumassessment.org except where indicated) 1. Is this a theological concern? 2. Is Christianity part of the problem? 3. Could Christianity be part of the solution? a. What is creation for? b. What is our role? Glorify God
Theatre for human beings: 'After the world had been created, man was placed in it as in a theatre, that he, beholding above him and beneath him the wonderful works of God, might reverently adore their Author.' (Calvin, 1965, 64)
Redemption of all things in Christ: 'through him God was pleased to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven, by making peace through the blood of his cross' (1 Col. 20). Dominion? 'Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over every living thing that moves upon the earth.' (Gen. 1.28)
Servanthood? (Linzey: humans as sacrificial priesthood (1994, 52–8))
Fellow creature, using particular capacities in service of others? (DC?)
Witness to God's action, act in our own sphere, or become co-creators? 'Nature, the world, has no value, no interest for Christians. The Christian thinks only of himself and the salvation of his soul...The practical end and object of Christians is solely heaven.' (Feuerbach, 1841, 287–8)
'Christianity is the most anthropocentric religion the world has ever seen...Man shares, in great measure, God's transcendence of nature...Christianity, in absolute contrast to ancient paganism and Asia's religions (except, perhaps Zoroastrianism), not only established a dualism of man and nature but also insisted that it is God's will that man exploit nature for his proper ends.' (White, 1967, 1205)
many examples of God's concern for the natural world in the Bible (e.g. Job 38–41)
development of natural sciences from natural theology
Christian involvement in formation of humane societies (early RSPCA pamplet was reprint of a John Wesley sermon against cruelty to animals)
If accusation were proven, would would the appropriate response be? Stewardship model used to call for greater environmental responsibility
More radical critiques question the subordination of non-human interests to human ones (e.g. animal experimentation)
Ecotheology - theology focussed on relationship between theology and nature, with particular attention given to environmental concerns The issue What's wrong with suicide? Whose life? Rejection of God? Community
responsibility (distinct from) Refusing treatment Ordinary means
- impermissible to refuse Extraordinary means
- permissible to refuse Direct killing
- self-murder directly intend to take life cf indirect killing
- accept killing as side-effect Theory of double-effect Permissible to cause evil as side-effect if
1. Action good or indifferent in itself
2. Evil effect not intended
3. Evil effect equally immediate with good effect (not means)
4. Proportionately grave reason to allow evil to occur. Assisted suicide Euthanasia Helping someone act to bring about their death Bringing about the death of someone believing it to be in their interest Voluntary
- with consent Non-voluntary (involuntary)
- patient unable to give consent Active
- act to bring about death Passive
- refrain from acting to bring about death Oregon's 'Death with Dignity' Law § 2.01 Who May Initiate A Written Request For Medication
An adult who is capable, is a resident of Oregon, and has been determined by the attending physician and consulting physician to be suffering from a terminal disease, and who has voluntarily expressed his or her wish to die, may make a written request for medication for the purpose of ending his or her life in a humane and dignified manner in accordance with this Act.
§ 6.01 Form Of The Request
A request for a medication as authorized by this Act shall be in substantially the following form:
Request For Medication To End My Life In A Humane And Dignified Manner
I, ________________, am an adult of sound mind.
I am suffering from ________________, which my attending physician has determined is a terminal disease and which has been medically confirmed by a consulting physician.
I have been fully informed of my diagnosis, prognosis, the nature of medication to be prescribed and potential associated risks, the expected result, and the feasible alternatives, including comfort care, hospice care and pain control.
I request that my attending physician prescribe medication that will end my life in a humane and dignified manner.
___ I have informed my family of my decision and taken their opinions into consideration.
___ I have decided not to inform my family of my decision.
___ I have no family to inform of my decision.
I understand that I have the right to rescind this request at any time.
I understand the full import of this request and I expect to die when I take the medication to be prescribed.
I make this request voluntarily and without reservation, and I accept full moral responsibility for my actions.
DECLARATION OF WITNESSES
We declare that the person signing this request:
(a)Is personally known to us or has provided proof of identity;
(b)Signed this request in our presence;
(c)Appears to be of sound mind and not under duress, fraud, or undue influence;
(d)Is not a patient for whom either of us is attending physician.
________________ Witness 1/Date
________________ Witness 2/Date
Note: One witness shall not be a relative (by blood, marriage or adoption) of the person signing this request, shall not be entitled to any portion of the person's estate upon death and shall not own, operate or be employed at a health care facility where the person is a patient or resident. If the patient is an inpatient at a health care facility, one of the witnesses shall be an individual designated by the facility.
[Full text available at http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/news/review/archives/medrev_v2n2_0003.html.] For or against? DPP guidance on prosecution of assisted suicide http://www.cps.gov.uk/news/press_releases/109_10/ Assisted suicide of Craig Ewert What should the doctor say? Sources for Christian Ethics Scripture
Experience Rise of tuition fees
NATO attempted rescue of Linda Norgrave
Some animals treated more equally than others
Christian response to Serbian anti-gay protests
Swiss advertizing of assisted suicide
Legalization of assisted suicide in UK - Michael Caine's dad
Police shooting of barrister Mark Saunders
Offence caused in office by jokes - sue?
Take account of old age in sentencing?
Selling of personal details by websites to advertizers
25% rise in bankers' bonuses since 2009
Sentencing of Chester rapist
Cuts in science funding budget
Intelligent bypassed in Alzeimher's prescribing
Trial of Iraqi suspects of killing 6 Red Caps
IVF being offered to terrorist prisoners
Cap on benefits of £500 per week
Justice of making X-Factor contestant special case for immigration
Initiatives to keep women out of jail
Phillipines law prosecuting wrong singing of national anthem
Pay gap between men and women
Injecting patient with malaria to test antibiotic treatments
Limits of personal freedom re. cannabis and medical treatment
Labelling of Halal meat
How should state resources be used: what cut?
Objections to building old people's homes near towns
Wife of Nobel peace prize winner placed under house arrest
George Michael released from prison early
Parental responsibility for drug use in children
Displacing of population for Commonwealth Games Religious objection? Class discussion Matthew 5:38-42
Does this text mean that Christians shouldn't be soldiers? http://bible.oremus.org/?sourceid=Mozilla-search&passage=matthew%205&vnum=yes&version=nrsv KONINCK, Philips 1619 - 1688, An Extensive Landscape with a Road by a River 1655 Deontological ethics Teleological ethics from Greek deon = duty; logos = science
some actions are right or wrong independent of their consequences
e. g. Decalogue
morality is about duty, obligation, right and wrong from Greek telos = end, goal
rightness or wrongness of actions exclusively determined by consequences
e. g. greatest happiness for greatest number
morality is about good and bad results Why be a deontologist? Why be a teleologist? obedience: I do what I’m told (e. g. Moses; limited responsibility)
agency: I am responsible for what I do in a different way than for what you do (A robs B≠B robs A, if I am A)
character: good people don’t do bad things
reflexivity (boomerang effect): doing bad things makes it easier to do them again
uncertainty: can’t be sure of the consequences (or the consequences of the consequences)
incommensurability (apples and oranges): can’t choose between consequences (child’s smile or chocolate ice cream?) results matter: must prefer better to worse (crashing plane to hit 1 or many people)
responsibility: can’t avoid responsibility for world around us (it’s down to us)
self-indulgence: how can we value our virtue above what’s best for everyone? (clean hands)
know enough: don’t need to be prophets to predict the important results of our actions
can compare results: more or less people hurt; choose between incommensurables all the time; cost-benefit analysis how to travel? where to go? Beyond a simple choice? justification of deontological rules often requires teleological reasons
teleological theories often need rules of thumb for day-to-day decisions
may need to combine elements of both theories Objection II: Obedience is Childish Karl Barth's Ethic of Divine Command Objection I: The Euthyphro Dilemma Socrates c. 470-399 BC Plato 428/427 -348/347 BC April 20th, 1962 What's the problem? 16. Animals Please seat yourself according to this plan: CHB002 Seats for superiors (brown-eyed) Seats for inferiors (non brown-eyed) 2011 Debate Pacifist Just war Realist - Theme of justice crucial to the Bible: bringing justice requires force
- Worse to do nothing than not to fight
- Bible makes clear that war is justified in some circumstances: God commands war
- Can't separate OT and NT on this issue: warfare imagery in NT
- Jesus presented an idealistic extreme ideal that we cannot attain
- Self-defence clearly legitimate
- Turning other cheek text is rejecting violent revenge
- Rom. 13 command to obey authorities
- We are to live peaceably in so far as possible, but not always possible - Ideals of just war often not achieved in practice
- Who are we to decide to kill others?
- Pacifists don't just stand by and allow evil, but leave it to God
- Christianity is about peace: war is an absurdity in a Christian context
- Bombing for peace is like .... for virginity
- Mt. 5: love your enemies
- Christianity is an idealistic religion - worth trying to reach these ideals.
- Virtue ethics indicates.peaceableness as a virtue - Other positions attractive, but unrealistic
- Only work when others keep to the same rules
- Just War too simplistic to handle modern scenarios
- Christianity had to help defend Roman state
UK Department of Health statistics: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Statistics/StatisticalWorkAreas/Statisticalpublichealth/index.htm
UK Department of Health statistics: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Statistics/StatisticalWorkAreas/Statisticalpublichealth/index.htm Abortion continues to be morally controversial: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jan/28/scott-roeder-abortion-doctor-killer A. Human practices in relation to (other) animals Food Research and testing Clothing Sport and entertainment 56 billion animals raised and slaughtered annually
(Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options (Geneva: Food and Agriculture Organization, 2006)) 3.6 million animal procedures started in UK in 2009 http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/science-research/animal-research/ C. 45 million animals killed for fur each year, about 50% mink 30,000 dogs racing; 10,000 surplus each year
15,000 horses in training for races
over 1 million horses in UK Working animals c. 30 million pets in UK B. Theological perspectives on animals 1. Did God create the world for humans? 2. What is the role of humanity in relation to (other) animals? So God created humankind in his image,
in the image of God he created them;
male and female he created them.
God blessed them, and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over every living thing that moves upon the earth.” (Gen. 1.27–8) Lord?
Fellow creature? C. Philosophical perspectives on animals 1. Utilitarianism The day may come when the rest of the animal creation may acquire those rights which never could have been witholden from them but by the hand of tyranny. The French have already discovered that the blackness of the skin is no reason why a human being should be abandoned without redress to the caprice of a tormentor. It may one day come to be recognized that the number of the legs, the villosity of the skin, or the termination of the os sacrum, are reasons equally insufficient for abandoning a sensitive being to the same fate. What else is it that should trace the insuperable line? Is it the faculty of reason, or perhaps the faculty of discourse? But a full-grown horse or dog is beyond comparison a more rational, as well as a more conversable animal, than an infant of a day, or a week, or even a month, old. But suppose they were otherwise, what would it avail? The question is not, Can they reason? nor Can they talk? but, Can they suffer?
(Jeremy Bentham, (1988  ) The Principles of Morals and Legislation, Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus, 310–11) 2. Animal rights - Treat animals as ends in themselves
- Which ones? Regan: subjects of a life: mammals and birds D. Ethical responses 1. Anti-cruelty charities
2. Minimum farm animal welfare standards
3. Ban on fur farming
5. Restriction/prohibition of animal research
6. Abolition of animal sports
... Pets Debate
Arguments for Just War Arguments for Christian Pacifism