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Transcript of grammar translation
1. Time: 1800-1940
* it is one of the most traditional method of ESL teaching
* it was originally used to teach ‘dead’ languages (and literature) such as Latin and Greek, involving little or no spoken communication or listening comprehension
* students will be able to read/ translate from one language to another.
* students achieve enough competence in the foreigh language to be able to read and to appreciate foreign language literature.
* studying a language was thought to be a mentally stimulating, and thus an intellectually enriching and enterprise.
* The phraseology of the target language is quickly explained.
* Teacher’s labor is saved.
* It is an unnatural method and speech is neglected.
* It does not give pattern practice.
* Exact translation is not possible.
1. Time: 1800's to early 1920's
* There are many abstract words which cannot be interpreted directly in English;
* This method is based on the principles that auditory appeal is stronger that visual.
The method ignores systematic written work and reading activities and sufficient attention is not paid to reading and writing.
First in european countries, and then in United States.
（also called the anti- Grammatical method)
reading aloud; self- correction; question- answer exercise; conversation practice; fill-in-the blank exercise; dictation.
Students learn language in order to communication in L2;
* it makes the learning of English interesting and lively by establishing direct bond between a word and its meaning;
* it is an activity method facilitating alertness and participation of the pupils;
* psychologically it is a sound method as it proceeds from the concrete to the abstract.
1. Time: 1920s-1960s
(also called Situational language learning)
* Students can respond quickly and accurately in speech situations.
* Automatic control of basic structures and sentence patterns
4. Teacher- Student interaction:
* Learner roles: Listen and repeat what the teacher says;
Respond questions and commands
* Teacher roles: First setting up a situation and then like the skillful conductor
* Oral production without risk;
* Does not requires many resources;
* Good way to teach pronunciation and vocabulary.
* The learner has no control over the content of learning;
* Do not account the learner's creativity and uniqueness of individual sentences;
* Do not focus on reading and writing in the same level o speaking and listening.
Audio- Lingual Method
1. Time: 1945
3. Reason to raise:
* The US government needed people who were fluent in other language (German, French, Italian, etc) to work as interpreters and translators. so American universities create foreign language programs for military personnel.
4. Learning hypothesize:
Knowledge of sufficient vocabulary to use with grammar patterns
*language learning is habit- format; analogy is a better foundation for language learning than analysis; the meanings of words can be learned only in a linguistic and cultural context.
*Basic method of teaching is repetition, Pupils became better and better at pattern practice but were unable to use the patterns fluently in natural speech situations;
* Teachers could only assist students in presentation of new materials;
* Audio-Visual materials were open to same sort of misuse
Emphasized need for visual presentation and possibility of eliciting language from visual cues
1. Time: 1963
Give beginning level students oral and aural facility in basic elements of the target language.
Fidels; Cuisenaire rods
5. Teacher- student interaction:
6. Learning Hypotheses:
learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates rather than remembers and repeats what is to e learned
Teacher: silence but active;
Learner: independent, autonomous; responsible;
* Fosters cooperative learning between individuals;
* Save time and energy for both teachers and students;
* It shows respect for th individual and an awareness of the
individual's extraordinary cognitive powers.
* For some teachers the rigidity of the system may be meaningless;
* Language is separated from its social context and taught through artificial situations usually by rods.
TPR/ Comprehension Approach
1. Time: 1970
Communicative Approach (CA)/ Functional Notional
Community Language Learning
compare and connection
6. Teacher and Student Interactive:
Dr. James J. Asher
3. Reason to raise:
The high rate of dropout of second language students in a traditional program (95%) because of the stress
5. Learning Hypotheses
* The acquisition- learning hypothesis: grammar study (learning) is less effective than simple exposure (acquisition);
* The monitor hypothesis: "fluency" is due to "what we have acquired" not to "learned"
* The natural order hypothesis: language rules are acquired in a predictable order and certain rules tend to be acquired before others;
* The input hypothesis: concerned with "acquisition" not "learning".
*The affective filter hypothesis: a number of "affective variables" play a facilitative, but non-causal, role in second language acquisition.
To produce learners who are capable of free communication, which is understandable to a native speaker
Teacher: direct and initiator role;
Learner: listener and performer role.
Preparing easily; Effective for both adults and young learners.
Best suitable for beginners; Challenging for shy students
1. Time: 1970s
4. Teacher and Student interaction
Not only memorization of vocabulary pairs but also understanding and creative solution of problems
* Teacher: presenting the language; provide a secure environment; Uninteresting students limit;
* Student: interactive.
* It is difficult for them to divide their mind into two sides, to the music and to the lesson.
* Will be difficult to be practiced in the large class
* Students remember best by information coming from an authoritative source, teachers;
* Students to apply language more independently.
4. Teacher and student interaction:
teacher: facilitator and monitor; free themselves form the textbook
student: engaging in the process
Robert Langs MD
1. Time: in the middle of 19th century
3. Learning Hypothesis:
Charles A. Curran
4. Teacher and Student interaction:
translation; group work; recording; analysis; reflection
3. Learning Hypothesis:
* It creates a warm, sympathetic and trusting relationships between teacher and learners;
* Works well with lower levels students who are struggling in spoken English;
* Counselor allow the learners to determine types of conversation;
* Train students to become independent;
* Humanistic side of language learning instead of merely linguistic dimensions
1. Student- Centered or Teacher- Centered:
4. Learning Sequence (listening, speaking, reading, and writing)
6. If error free
1. Academic Language: Can do philosophy
* accentuates the positive qualities and assets of our ELLs (pg. 1)
2. English Language Development (ELD) standard:
* 2012 application; 2007 edition; 2004 edition
Dr. Margarita Calderón
(Expediting Comprehension for English Language Learners)
3. Instructional strategies for:
vocabulary, reading, and writing, ensure academic language, reading and writing specific to the CCSS.
4. Vocabulary tiers 1,2,3 for ELLs:
* tier 1: basic words ELLs need to communicate, read, and write.
* tier 2: polysemous words, transition words, connectors; more sophisticated words for rich discussions and specificity in descriptions.
* tier 3: subject- specific words that label content discipline concepts, subjects, and topics.
round table; pre-teaching; partner reading; cooperative learning
fluency; comprehension strategies; self- correction; fix-it strategies.
language goals' language history; intercultural experiences; self assessment checklists
* samples of written work and projects;
* certificates that indicate language skills
* video and/ or audio recordings
* a summary of language learning and intercultural experiences;
* self- assessment grid;
* linguistic profile
2. Reflect Teaching:
3. Reflect Learning:
1. Three Components:
the teacher uses the target language helps learners to communicate scaffolding speech; engages learners in activities that produce language; involves learners regularly in evaluating their progress and thinking about how they learn
the learners think about their own learning through a deliberate step-by- step process, gradually develop a useful repertoire of learning strategies. demystify the learning process through ongoing teacher, peer,and self- evaluation.
The outcome of ALM is simplex since the students are mostly repeat what teacher says; while the outcomes of CA are more varies because of the dialogues are mostly come from the daily lives.
Compare by Characteristic
Different methods focus different on the role of student and teacher. For example ALM is the teacher- centered method that teacher controls 100% of the learning process; Communicative Approach and Silence Way are the student- centered method that students are the center of the learning process because dictated by pupils' needs and interests. What is more, CLL is neither student centered, nor teacher centered, but rather teacher- student centered.
These methods are variety about using the syllabus. For example, CLL and Silence Way do not use traditionally syllabus; Suggestopedia more use syllabus based on unite (such as 3 days), and communicative learning is broken up in notions and functions called Notional Functional Syllabus.
Compare by Characteristic
Most methodologies call for all four language skills to worked on from the beginning of the instruction (e.g., Suggestopedia). But TPR emphasis on the listening skills, and Oral Approach focus more on the speaking skills.
In ALM, teachers guide students learning to avoid error; while in Communicative Approach, errors are a natural part of learning language.
And in Communicative Approach, student get the meaning by trial and error.
7. If use students' native language
The use of the students' native language varies considerably from method to method. Silence Way teachers do not use it in the classroom, but rely on the knowledge students bring with them of their native language and build there. CLL and Suggestopedia make extensive use of the students' native language. Other methds of the Communicative Approach does not make explicit any role for the students' native languages.
1. The goal of most methodologists appears to be prepare students to be able to
in the foreign language.
2. Language learning is seen to be a
, that is best accomplished by having the students use the language in a personally meaningful way, rather than analyzing structures. So grammar is taught inductively, often without explicit grammar rules ever being furnished.
3. Most methods are use all
four language skills
is more informal, focus on how students use the language not what they know about it.
5. Most methods are
. Learners are encouraged to learn from each other as well as from the teacher, be responsible for their own learning.
Compare in Pairs
1. ALM & Silence Say
In ALM, teachers attempt to control the language that students produce as much as possible to avoid students' committing errors; while in Silence way, the teacher use minimal spoken cues while guiding students to produce the structures.
2. Silence Way & TPR
In TPR, in the beginning of using TPR method, the students are always silent and the teacher do all speaking; while in the Silence way, the teachers are silently working with students to shape their production and students are responsible for their own;
3. ALM & Communicative Approach
6. In the learning process, students should no just be asked to manipulate linguistic forms,
must be present at all times.
Oral and aura skills
are primary, with reading and writing reinforcing what students have already encountered through speaking and listening.
, for the most part, relates to the everyday life- style of native speakers of the foreign language. It receives little special focus of its own, other than that which arises through fostering a cultural awareness necessary for communication to take place appropriately.
9. The use of
students' native language
varies from method to method.
In the early 1970's
centered on human adaptations to emotionally- changed events both awareness (consciously)and outside of awareness (unconsciously)
Teacher must understand both language;
Grammar teaching will be difficult;
Focus on fluency not accuracy;
Not good for weaker learner;
A notion is a specific framework of communication and function is a particular purpose for a speaker in a precise context.
6. Notion Function Syllabus:
In GT, students translated passage form the foreign language into their native language and vice verse; in Direct Method, grammar is taught inductively; in Communicative Approach, grammar can still be taught but less systematically. Then in ALM, grammar rules are induced by students and rarely made explicit.
3. The Role of Grammar
Classroom activities maximize opportunities for learners to use target language in a communicative way for meaningful activities.
* Focuses on language as a medium of communication, recognizes that all communication has a social purpose;
* Classroom activities maximize opportunities for learners to use target language in a communicative way for meaningful activities
C.C. Fries and Robert Lado
* Counseling- Learning theory;
* Humanistic Techniques;
* Language Alternation
6. Method: Natural Approach:
No syllabus makes it is too non-directive while the student often needs direction especially in the first staged
( Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol)
1. The Eight Components/ Lesson Plan sheet
Practice and Application;
Review and Assessment
* Implementing effective literacy practices for English learners across content areas;
* Implementing a robust vocabulary development program
* Developing learner activities that simultaneously promote content knowledge understanding and the corresponding academic language outlined in the CCSS
* Making the language demands of the CCSS explicit to English learners through the development and assessment of language objectives
* Designing higher-order thinking tasks and questions with appropriate language scaffolds
* Creating opportunities for meaningful interaction among students to practice the lesson’s target academic language
2. SIOP Model and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS)
Developing and Integrating Literacy and Language Skills into Classroom Practices. The CAL SIOP Model professional development series help educators acquire the knowledge base and instructional skills to support English learner achievement in the CCSS by:
3. Proficiency Standards
3. Learning Hypothesis:
*Behaviorist theory (Skinnr)
* language learning is habit formation.
* learning L2 should be like acquiring L1.
Johann Seidenstudker, Karl Plotz, H.S. ollendorf, Johann Meidinger
3. Learning Hypothesis
Language learning is memorizing rules and facts in order to understand and manipulate the morphology and syntax of the foreign language
3. Five standards:
1). Teachers Demonstrate Leadership;
2). Teachers Establish a Respectful Environment for a Diverse Population of Students;
3). Teachers Know the Content They Teach;
4). Teachers Facilitate Learning for their students;
5). Teachers Reflect on their Practice.
4. Reference: Handout
5. Identify student levels
WIDA has the "can do" list and Linguafolios has the "self- assessment grid". Besides that SIOP also has the similar checklists to let students certify their learning.
4. The Self- Assessment Grid
* Novice (low; mid; high);
Intermediate (low; mid; high);
advanced (low, mid, high);
*presentational; interpersonal; interpretive .
Post Method Era
* mostly for all students, focus on reading and writing