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Middle School Career Counseling

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Bich Do

on 13 March 2014

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Transcript of Middle School Career Counseling

Unique Population:
Middle School Students
Bich Do & Giselle Jimenez
CSP 617: Career Counseling, Fall 2013

Population Overview: MIDDLE SCHOOL
Counseling Models & Theories
Early Adolescence
Ages 10-14
Grades 6, 7, & 8
"Imaginary Audience":
In social situations the attention is all on them
"Personal Fable":
Feel like they aren't like anyone else and are vulnerable.
Resources & References
Implications for School Counselors
Implications for school Counselors:
School-Wide Supports
Implications for School Counselors:
Small Group & Individual Supports
Overall Implications
for School Counselors
Implications for School Counselor: Community Collaboration
National Office for
School Counselor Advocacy (NOSCA):
8 Components of College and Career Readiness
1. College Aspirations
2. Academic Planning for College and Career Readiness
3. Enrichment and Extracurricular Engagement
4. College and Career Exploration and Selection Processes
5. College and Career Assessments
6. College Affordability Planning
7. College and Career Admission Processes
8. Transition from High School Graduation to College Enrollment
Trait-and-Factor Theories:

Developmental Theories:
- Individuals develop their traits through:
Environments that are agreeable
- Examples:
Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice
Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)
Brown's Values-Based Theory of Occupational Choice
- Career choice, change, and withdrawal are influenced by:
Cultural Factors
- Focused on stages of development
- Examples:
Super's Life Span, Life Space Theory
Gottfredson's Circumscription and Compromise Theory

Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice
Personality influence career choices
Interest Inventories = Personality Inventories

Stereotypical views of careers influence career choices
Example: I want to be a police officer because they protect people and carry guns! I don't want to be a nurse because they work with blood and old people.

Daydreams about occupations are precursors to occupational choice

More clarity of identity = narrowed career choices

If personality influences career choices, others in our work environment will have similar personalities
How are personalities developed?
Types of Personality & Types of Environments (RIASEC):

More Holland's Theory...
Assessments & Resources Based on Holland's Theory:
Vocational Preference Inventory
Strong Interest Inventory
Self-Directed Search, (SDS) vs. Self-Directed Search Career Explorer
Kuder Occupational Interest Survey (KOIS)
Find your Interests
My Vocational Holland's Code
Dictionary of Holland Occupational Codes
So... should I use Holland's Theory for Middle School Students?
Gender Validity
Good predictor of occupational compatibility
A good start to help GUIDE students
Connect students to clubs that mirror careers
Many available assessments
Can be fun & engaging for Middle School students
Cultural Validity?
Does not address decision-making process
Individualistic view
Typical Problems
& Unique Needs
Members of
other Unique Populations
Race / Ethnicity
Rural / Urban
Students with disabilities
Beginning to think about careers related to their abilities.
Developing quickly
Drop in Self-Esteem
Unaware of talents
Girls Vs. Boys

Food for thought:
What are our educational and
career counseling goals for students in middle school?
How does TECHNOLOGY change the
way we help students with career development?
Self Assessments:
Interests and Aptitudes before completing measures
Connect academic work to future career success
Link students to corresponding extracurricular clubs and camps
Job Shadowing
On-site Field Trips
Portfolio Building
TRIO (7 U.S. Federal programs to increase access to high education for economically disadvantaged students)
Life Style Planning
Explore exercises that illustrate how different salaries affect daily living
Groups projects for career exploration
Dropping out or Hanging In
Career Day for special populations
Discuss how sex-role and cultural stereotypes are limiting (esp. with STEM careers)
Career Day
for Special Populations:
Encouraging Middle School Girls Towards STEM Careers
People are unique
The possibilities are endless.
Different careers have patterns of abilities and personalities
People change with time and experience
Ecological perspective
SES, Mental ability, Career maturity
Realistic. Identifies strengths and weaknesses
Developing an occupational self-concept
Increases self-awareness and evaluation
Compromise or synthesis of self and the environment
Experiences in work -> perception of self
Career development = process of change

According to NOSCA, Carlson (2004), middle school career counseling programs should:
Create opportunities for exploration
Strengthen college and career knowledge
Increase skills necessary for academic planning and goal setting
Nurture student aspirations and Increase future possibilities
Allow students to explore multiple careers
Guide students towards different paths to reach goals
Discuss how sex-role and cultural stereotypes are limiting
Increase self-awareness
Enhance their abilities to:
set goals, plan, and make decisions
Be age appropriate and structured
Address how personal choice and family values influence career choice
Help students implement plan by taking the necessary tests and courses

Brown, D. (2012). Career Information, Career Counseling, and Career Development, 9th ed.
Boston, MA. Pearson Education.

Carlson, B. (2004). Career perceptions of middle school youth. Gender, Diversities, and Technology
Institute. Career Resources Network Project. Retrieved from www2.edc.org/GDI/publications_SR/CareerLitReviewSumm.pdf

Hartun, P. J., Porfeli, E. J., & Vondracek, F. W. (2008). Career adaptability in childhood. Career
Development Quarterly, 57.

Jones, L. K., Sheffield, D., & Joyner, B. (2000). Comparing the effects of the Career Key with
Self-Directed Search and Job-OE among eighth-grade students. Professional School Counseling, 3(4), p. 238-47

Lee, V, & Bell, A. (2012). Middle school Counselor's guide: NOSCA’s Eight Components of College
and Career Readiness Counseling, Retrieved from http://advocacy.collegeboard.org/sites/default files/11b-4382_MS_Counselor_Guide_WEB_120213.pdf

McDevitt, T. M., & Ormrod, J. E. (2010). Child development and education. 5th ed. Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

Rivera, L. M., & Schaefer, M. B. (2009). The Career Institute: A collaborative career development
program for traditionally underserved secondary (6-12) school students. Journal of Career Development, 35(4), 406-426. Retrieved from http://jcd.sagepub.com/content/35/4/406

Career Key (Similar to Holland's RIASEC)
National Office for School Counselor Advocacy
Middle School Guide
Resources for Parents

TRIO (7 U.S. federal programs to increase access to high education for economically disadvantaged students
Upward Bound, Talent Search, Student Support Services
Educational Opportunity Centers,
STEM Resources:
Center for Children and Technology's (CCT) Project Imagine
Advocate for disadvantaged students
Use DATA to identify disparities
Collaborate and encourage colleagues, administration, and other stakeholders
On-going audit of academics and extracurricular activities
Create a college-going culture
Visits to a variety of colleges and technical schools
"Middle school counselors build on the work of counselors in elementary schools and pave the way for the work of high school counselors." -NOSCA
Outreach efforts should:
Be at variety of times and locations
Have materials written in families' native languages and be culturally sensitive
Teach process and components of college and career readiness
Help parents locate free or low-cost enrichment and extracurricular activities
Increase exposure to variety of careers
Invite representatives from local colleges and career schools
Locate community champions / role models
Super's Life Span,
Life Space Theory

Growth (0-15 yrs.)
Physical and psychological growth
Forming self-concept (attitudes and behaviors)
Experience influences knowledge of the world of work
Exploratory (15-24 yrs.)
Establishment (25-44 yrs.)
Maintenance (45-64 yrs.)
Decline (65+ yrs.)
Vocational Development Stages
Assessments related to
Super's Life Span, Life Space Theory
Career Development Inventory (CDI)
Measures career readiness
Measures amount of knowledge needed to make career decisions
Career Maturity Inventory (CMI)
So... should I use Super's Theory for Middle School Students?
Individualistic decision-makers
Ecological perspective
Addresses the decision-making process
Help students develop self-concepts
A good start to help GUIDE students
CDI has poor operational definition of"career maturity"
Cultural validity (African Americans & Career Maturity)
Collectivist decision-makers
Pieces of the theory are fragmented
Gottfredson's Theory of Circumscription and Compromise
How do Career Aspirations develop?

1. Career development begins in childhood
2. Career aspirations attempt to implement self concept
3. Career satisfaction depends on how the career reflects
4. People develop occupational stereotypes
Similar to Super (Self Concept) and Holland's (Stereotypes) assumptions
Social self: Intelligence, social status, gender
Psychological self: values and personality
Cognitive maps
Self Concepts composed of:
Masculinity/ femininity of the occupation
Prestige of the Occupation
Fields of work
+ Compatibility
Career aspiration
Circumscribe (Limit) their Occupational field.
Compromise: Deciding what occupation is more accessible.
Developmental Stages
3-5: Size and Power
6-8: Acceptable Sex-roles
9-13: Social valuation
14+: Choices explored
Career Development:
Breaks Sex-role stereotypes
Stops limitations due to social status
Self exploration
Career Counseling:
Diagnosing Developmental problems(Racial, ethnic, Heterosexual)
Assumes Student is the decision maker
Helps students assess, explore, plan, and transition.
Delivers simple content customized by developmental level.
Provides a reliable foundation for career exploration with research-based assessments.
Helps students navigate career options and make relevant connections between coursework and the world of work.
Supports high school completion and confident college choices with flexible education planning tools.
Promotes effective career preparation by introducing students to lifelong portfolio development.
Improves accountability, quantifies program success, and eases reporting requirements.

Scientifically validated Career assessments
Kuder® Career Interests Assessment (KCIA)
Kuder® Skills Confidence Assessment(KSCA)
Kuder® Work Values Assessment (KWVA)
Takes 10 minutes to complete
English and Spanish
Galaxy: k-5th
Navigator: 6th-12th
Journey: Adults
Administrative Database Management System

Kuder Navigator
Full transcript