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Transcript of NEODYMIUM
Carl Auer von Welsbach
, an Austrian scientist, separated a rose colored oxide from cerite in
He believed that the oxide contained a new element which he named didymium.
In 1885 von Welsbach separated didymium, an extract of cerite, into two new elemental components, neodymia and praseodymia, by repeated fractioning of ammonium didymium nitrate.
Neodymium is found in
. It is also found in minerals such as
, which are the most common sources for rare earth metals.
Birth of a New Element
While there was success separating didymium into two elemental components in 1885, it was not until
, when neodymium was separated into a relatively pure form.
The name Neodymium comes from the Greek words "
" or the translated meaning, "
Neodymium is mostly dangerous in the
, due to the fact that gasses can be inhaled in the air.
This can cause lung embolisms and be a threat to the liver when it accumulates in the human body.
It is one of the more reactive rare
It tarnishes in air, forming an oxide layer that spills off.
It has two allotropes and transforms from double hexagonal to body centered cubic structure.
Natural neodymium consists of
Glasses and Ceramics
Neodymium is used as a colourant for glasses.
When added to glass it can produce colors ranging from pure violet, to wine red, to warm grey.
It is added to glass to remove the green color induced by presence of iron.
Neodymium is also used as a colorant for enamels.
Neodymium is used with iron and boron to create
magnets. Can be referred to as NIB magnets.
NIB magnets are used in computers, cell phones, medical equipment, toys, motors, wind turbines and audio systems.
Background and History
Neodymium is used as a crystal in lasers.
These layers can have numerous applications, such as:
they are used in medicine to treat skin cancers and for laser hair removal; and in industry they are used to cut and weld steel.
Neodymium is dumped in the different places, mainly by petrol-producing industries.
It can end up in the environment when household equipment is thrown away.
Neodymium will gradually accumulate in soils and water soils, which leads to increasing concentrations in humans, animals and soil particles.
Users of neodymium magnets must take caution when handling them.
Because of the extremely high magnetism of larger NIB magnets, they can literally fly across a room if ferromagnetic metals are present.
If the magnet connects to something with enough momentum and force, it can shatter, firing dangerous shrapnel that can puncture skin and bones in many directions.
Neodymium magnets are incredibly strong and have a lot of potential to be used for various technological applications.
They are also lighter than other magnets, which lends to building light weight products.
Current and Future Neodymium Products
Some of the current applications include:
magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)
loudspeakers and headphones
motors in cordless tools
magnetic guitar picks
wind turbines producing
As technology advances, so will the
of neodymium magnets.
Glasses and Ceramics
Neodymium glass (Nd:glass) is produced by the inclusion of neodymium oxide (Nd2O3) in the glass melt. Usually in daylight or incandescent light neodymium glass appears lavender, but it appears pale blue under fluorescent lighting. Neodymium may be used to color glass in delicate shades ranging from pure violet through wine-red and warm gray.
The first commercial use of purified neodymium was in glass coloration, starting with experiments by Leo Moser, a mathmetician, in November 1927. The resulting "Alexandrite" glass remains a signature color of the Moser glassworks to this day.
The first operating neodymium laser was developed in 1964 at Bell Labs, not long after the invention of the ruby laser. Unlike the ruby laser, however, the neodymium laser has continued to find new applications and to grow in importance, right up to the present day.
Certain transparent materials with a small concentration of neodymium ions can be used in lasers as gain media for infrared wavelengths (1054–1064 nm),Neodymium-doped crystals generate high-powered infrared laser beams which are converted to green laser light in commercial DPSS hand-held lasers and laser pointers.