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Surveillance and Targeting
Transcript of Surveillance and Targeting
Lemi Baruh & Mihaela Popescu
The rise of the prosumer
“Empowering” individuals to express themselves
Prerequisite: disclosure of intimate details
Discussions regarding threats to individual privacy
Control over identification information
Fraud & data security
Protection of underage users’ privacy (from sexual predators) Explicating the evolving nature of automated surveillance and its relation to identity
Proposing a value based approach to defining the value of privacy
Purpose Ulrich Beck’s Reflexive Modernity:
The self became the primary agent of meaning.
Objective, institution driven information loses credence as the currency of information derived from subjective & personal experience increases.
Phantasmagoric Workplace (Sternbeck)
The individual is responsible for maintaining his/her own image constantly.
Having a unique image, being recognized is a crucial prerequisite of success in contemporary capitalism.
Immaterial Labor (Hardt & Negri)
"...analytical and symbolic tasks, which itself breaks down into creative and intelligent manipulation on the one hand and routine symbolic tasks on the other."
Celebrating the rise of
interactive media! Piecemeal Approach to Privacy Wear your emotions on anyware *(and anywhere). Link by Genetics Share your taste, make a statement Define yourself throough your connections Multimodular Identities Self-disclosure as a an active privacy choice? In an environment of extensive surveillance, self-disclosure is portrayed as the only viable way for individuals to actively participate in the creation of images about themselves... Tracking Transcience Hasan Elahi Data intensive: interactive media has an increasingly larger share among sources of information
Behavioral data increasingly a part of the stock of information about individuals
Data mining: algorithm based detection of deviations from the base statistic
Contemporary Surveillance And what happens to??? From Panopticon to Kafkaesque Surveillance The panopticon’s disciplinary function is partly dependent on uncertainty (the prisoner does not know when he is being watched) and self discipline (“Chilling effect”)
In contemporary surveillance the uncertainty is wider because the new locus of privacy is the institution: The target of surveillance (anyone at anytime) does not know:
Who collects data?
When data is collected?
How data is collected, collated, and interpreted?
What distinguishes "bad" behavior from "good" behavior? Permanency of data
Aura of Objectivity: Rationalization (in both senses of the word) of surveillance through automated mining
“...figure of the vicious tyrant is replaced by that of the indifferent bureaucrat.”
Automated data-mining dehumanizes and consequently “removes human bias”.
The automated surveillant is indifferent and hence its inferences are “objective”
Reliance on statistical evidence adds to this aura of objectivity
Decisions & Behavior The individual has no chance to control, check or challenge the institutional automated decisions Problem of Privacy Protection Individual does not have control on subsequent use
Individual cannot challenge institutional inferences
Privacy as individual choice pits privacy against other "social values" as efficiency or national security... A Value-based Approach:
Privacy & Partipatory Democracies Freedom to read is synergetic to freedom of speech.
Predictive technologies help corporations classify individuals in terms of their likelihood to accept a message.
Diversity of information received by the individual decreases.
Strategic manipulation of information replaces communicating information for careful decision-making purposes. Predictive Technologies,
Segmentation & Access to Information Public sphere: all-inclusive, open to diverse opinions and free from bias.
Profiles help communicators determine who is worth communicating to.
Income, race, ethnicity, education, gender, age are predictors that might lead to exclusion.
Self-fulfilling prophecy: Those who are deemed least worthy are those who need the information the most.
Public Sphere, Pluralism & Exclusion Excluded segments of the population are likely to lose “thin trust” in generalized others.
Loss of thin trust decreases the likelihood of engagement in communal life.
Exclusion & Social Trust Structuration Theory: Routine interactions enable the sustainability of social institutions
Routine interactions in public sphere enable individuals to develop the necessary skills of participation
Routine lack of interaction decreases the skills of, and demands for interaction Routinization of Disengagement The existence of factions in pluralist democracies is inevitable.
Inter-faction communication is a prerequisite for sustainability of such a political system.
Segmentation and targeting leads to group polarization.
Polarization is likely to decrease thin trust and increase animosity.
Segmentation & Polarization The "New" Individual
The "New" Surveillance "You are what you disclose..." Contemporary Dataveillance "The data doesn't lie."
Or does it? Hürriyet = Freedom, liberty ..... More liberty to everyone
Hürriyet = Name of the Newspaper ..... More Hürriyet to everyone iPhone as the quintessential gadget for freedom The advertising emphasizes:
User generated content