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Transcript of AS ICT
Development and Testing,
Documentation, Evaluations Systems Life Cycle Control Systems, Working Practices, Use of ICT in Advertising,
Use of ICT in Teaching and Learning,
Use of ICT in Publishing, Use of ICT in Time Management,
Use of ICT in Data Management, Payroll Applications,
Technical and Customer Support, Art and Design Work How Organisations use ICT Online Services, Online Services and Employment,
Online Services and Leisure Time,
Online Services and Working Patterns,
Online Services and Security and Privacy of Data,
Online Services and Health and Safety The Impact of ICT on Society Input Devices, Output Devices, Control Output Devices, Backing Storage,
Media and Devices and Portable Communication Devices ICT Systems One set of coils is outside the building – a condens-
Ing unit or condenser where the gas moves through
the condenser outside the building – it cools down
into al iquid. The other set, the evaporating unit is
inside the building. The compressor compresses
cool low-pressure gas into hot high-pressure gas.
As the gas then moves through the condenser out-
Side the building, it cools down into a liquid.
The liquid flows through the piing and passes
Through an expansion valve, this causes it to evapo-
Rate into a cold-low pressure gas. As the liquid
Changes to gas and evaporates, it absorbs heat from
The inside of the building.
The fan blows air across metal fins that have been chilled as a Of the heat being absorbed. This causes the room to cool down. The gas then continues to the compressor to continue the cycle.
There are usually two sensors (temperature) that monitor the temperature of the refrigerant, allowing the system to control the amount of heat being let out of the system. There may be a pressure sensor that monitors the pressure of the refrigerant so that the valve can be controlled to reduce or increase the flow of refrigerant.
Most systems have a temperature sensor in each of the rooms where the system operates. The systems control the heat loss from individual rooms by altering the speed of the fans or merely by switching them on or off according to the temperature. The person in the room may use a touch screen to input the temperature.
The temperature in each room is constantly monitored and if it is above the pre-set value, the fans for that room are switched on by the microprocessor (sending a signal to the actuator or stepper motor), if it is below the value, the fans remain off. Air conditioning system hm? Continuous:
This refers to processes that appear to be unending, for example the maintaining of temperature in confined surroundings. A refrigeration plant where it is necessary to maintain a constant low temperature uses continuous process control. Other examples are a refining process for petroleum and a paper machine with continuous output of paper onto rolls. These manufacturing processes are used to produce very large quantities of product per year. And a thermostat to maintain temperature in any room.
PLC (programmable logic controller)
This is a type of computer or microcomputer that is used for a single purpose. It is able to accept analogue and digital inputs, and a set of logic statements is used to compare the input with a pre-set value. Depending on the result, it activates the output devices. It is most often found in industrial processes and is normally programmed to operate a machine or system using just one program. Types of Process control Proportional-integral-derivative . These are used with closed-loop control systems. A closed loop system is one in which a physical variable, such as temperature, is being continuously monitored using a sensor connected to the PLC and the outputs from the controller affect the input, i.e. the temperature. It is a continuous process, the purpose of the PLC being to make the input value equal to the pre-set one. PID is the best way of accomplishing this and is found in many versions of control software. Pint? PID This is when specific items are produced. It is likened to an on/off or stop/start process. One example is the manufacture of cars. The computer control involved in fitting the wheels, for example, is discrete in so far as a wheel is fitted, then the next car comes along, and the same robot fits a wheel to that car in the same position. In between waiting for cars to arrive the robot stops. Discrete Process Control This is used in processes where specific amounts of raw materials are combined together and mixed for a certain length of time. An example is the manufacturing of food products such as pre-packaged meals. The ingredients are measured into a large vessel and mixed together for a certain amount of time. They are then heated to cook them. The amount of each ingredient that is added is controlled by computer, as is the length of time for each stage and the temperature. Batch processes are generally used to produce relatively small amounts of product per year. Batch Process Control Computer control is used in two major medical applications - intensive care and surgery - but both still require human intervention.
Patients in intensive care are monitored through the use of sensors. The sensors feed back a variety of body functions to the computer such as:
· blood pressure
· pulse rate
· body temperature.
The computer is pre-set with the normal range of values and is constantly comparing the data fed back by the sensors to these pre-set values. If any of the body function data falls outside the pre-set range the computer control system as we understand it, since there has to be human intervention.
The use of sensors and computers makes the process more accurate and the computer can monitor the health of several patients simultaneously, thus enabling nurses to carry out other tasks. Medical Applications Robotic surgery is an extension of keyhole surgery that involves using robotic arms and cameras inside the patient's body. The robotic arms and cameras are a lot smaller than normal. The end effector is usually a scalpel.
The surgeon wears goggles connected to the computer and is able to see inside the patient. They control the robotic arms and cameras by putting their hands in a console. When they move their hands, the robot arms and cameras respond exactly to the movements they make.
The benefits are that the work is more accurate, but the surgeon is in complete control. The procedures replace large-scale, invasive surgery, meaning that patients recover more quickly and do not occupy hospital beds for as long. Surgery THIS IS BARRACK OBAMA HE IS AWESOME MEDICAL APPLICATIONS Teleworking is another name for working from home. When a person teleworks, it means that some or all of the work they do is done at home using modern technology. Developments in ICT devices and systems have made it easier for jobs that used to be done in an office to be carried out at home. The number of people working from home using ICT systems is increasing year by year.
New technology developments such as portable communication devices as well as home computer systems and networks have enabled people to become less tied to an office to do their work. The ability to communicate with colleagues from a distance has led to employees working away from their offices for substantial periods of time. Teleworkers can stay in contact with the office using a broadband connection or a virtual private network (VPN). Many use portable communication devices when going away for business purposes: a mobile phone and either a laptop with wireless network capability or a personal digital assistant (PDA) with similar features.
In order to work from home, a teleworker needs:
· a PC with Internet access
· access to e-mail
· a landline phone
· a mobile phone
· a printer / photocopier (laser or inkjet)
Some also need videoconferencing equipment and there may be need for a scanner if the work involves, for example, putting together artwork. In addition, workers will need to have appropriate software.
Some jobs are better suited to teleworking than others. Most managers needing to make the decision as to whether an employee should be allowed to work from home consider the following types of employment to be very suitable:
· professional services; tax advice, legal advice and financial advice
· book editing
· proofreading documents and books
· technical and customer support
· telesales and marketing.
Involved in these areas need word-processing and web-browsing software. Tax advisers need spreadsheet and database software.
This may also mean : what person are they?
· be able to manage their time well
· be well motivated
· have good communication skills
· have good self-discipline
· have good time management skills. Home working, or teleworking Use of ICT in Time Management Time management is all about using the most efficient way of completing tasks or projects. This needs to be done within an acceptable period of time but with the highest quality outcome.
Time management applies to all examples of businesses, for example the manufacture of products, writing documents, and providing services and making decisions.
It's important for organisations to keep up to date with good time management techniques. The better application for time management makes an organisation more profitable in the long run although some staff may see any time management study as a threat.
Outside experts may be brought in or the organisation may employ people full time as workers in time management. They can examine existing good practice as well as attending course and gaining qualifications in the area. TIME MANAGEMENT ·Identifying short and long term targets - setting up an ICT department, there would be short and long term targets, for example hardware, software, cables, servers, etc. would all be short term, whereas some of the long term targets would be training the staff, including teachers and admin.
· Prioritising - this is hugely important when setting targets which are independent of each other.
· Planning - thorough planning of any project is very beneficial and any possible hurdles or potential areas of difficulties would be rooted out with discussion and planning.
· Decision making - it's important to make decisions and prioritizing these decisions is very important.
· Use of ICT - organisations benefit through the use of software and communication devices such as faxes, telephones and even express delivery of conventional mail (letters) Features of Time Management There are a number of software products that act as a stopwatch device. They allow users to click on a specific task and the computer periodically reminds the user how long they have been working on that task. Some tasks can be carried out at the same time as others (parallel). Some must be done and completed before others can even be thought about (sequential). Arranging Workload Construction Project Management This method of project management is not just specific to buildings anymore, it's applied in different types of project. It involves making a critical path analysis to find the optimum time to be spent on individual tasks.
The critical path is the order in which tasks must be completed so that the entire project is completed on time. Validation rules
<>0 Not zero
>3 and <9 Numbers between 4 and 8 inclusive
<#1/1/2009# Dates before 2009
<#1/1/2009# Dates in the year 2008