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Timucua Indians and Spanish Invasion
Transcript of Timucua Indians and Spanish Invasion
Cafui or Icafi
Ibi or Yui
Tucururu or Tucuru
Agua Dulce or Freshwater
Acuera or Diminiyuti or Ibiniyuti
Ocone Eastern Tribes Western Tribes Potano
Utina Itafi or Icafi , Mocama, and Potano Language Similar among tribes 3 Main Dialects Archaeological Differences 3 Main Regions St. Johns
Tacatacuru St. Johns: relied a lot on fishing for sustenance artifacts included oyster shells and shell heaps found on large, communal dumping sites Alachua: settled on high ground In order to be near a source of water they stayed near lakes, ponds, sinkholes, and streams. They did this because they were farther from the coast and needed other sources of water which provided fish, eels, mussels, and turtles Hunting: white-tailed deer Tacatacuru tribes: coastal like St. Johns dispose shells in small circular piles that tended to belong to individual homes rather than larger communal disposals. They had a much more dispersed settlement pattern than St. Johns Warfare common tools bows and arrows, javelins and spears, wooden clubs, stone hatchets, and fingernails Before men went to battle: ceremonies for Sun-God's blessings Common for men to kill men of enemy tribes women were captured and made slaves men were scalped and scalps were kept for symbols of victory Celebrations after victories would last for days Play shared common past-times including archery and running races Young men were trained well to be fast and strong runners and prizes were often awarded to the most talented boy Dancing: most common form of celebration communities were protected by large palisades made out of wood and logs comprised of about eight different types of structures These structures included the homes of the common people, a larger house that the chief lived in, a place for councils to meet, a storage facility for food, burial huts, and menstruation huts They were in spherical and pyramid shapes that protected against strong winds and rains despite a lack of nails to keep the strong dwellings intact The menstrual huts were located outside of this palisade and were a place for women to go during their periods and after child birth. It was considered a “social taboo” for men and women to be around each other during these times Community would preferably be placed near a source of water and be protected by animals and other tribes Soldier Perceptions Juan Ponce de Leon led the first soldier invasion of Spanish Florida in 1521 encountered heavy Timucuan resistance resulting in staggering fatalities Juan Ponce de Leon ordered a necessary retreat to Cuba where he died from an arrow wound Like the majority of conquistadors at the time, de Leon was focused on furthering not only his personal wealth and hierarchal status, but more importantly, the wealth and prestige of Spain Soldiers followed orders aimlessly and treated the Timucua Indians as a group of people who deserved to be conquered. Spanish Hierarchy “Penninsulares”, or people who were born in Spain, were considered superior. People of mixed Spanish, African, and most importantly Indian descent, were the lowest on the social scale April 1538, Hernando de Soto sailed to Spanish Florida with a “royal contract directing him to colonize La Florida” Soldier perceptions of the Timucuan people can be characterized as Emotionless and purely Utilitarian. Spanish soldiers were using the very resources they exploited from the natives to conquer the natives de Soto encountered many difficulties, especially with regards to finding food to nourish himself and his soldiers and to finding shelter for the harsh winter weather de Soto and his men essentially exhausted all of the native’s food supply. the Ocale were not “extensive agriculturists”, they suffered greatly from de Soto and his soldiers’ exploitations. When de Soto could no longer obtain food from the Ocale, he simply moved his troops to another tribe leaving the Ocale in a devastated state Missionary Perceptions “They are fleshy, and rarely is there a small one, but they are weak and phlegmatic as regards work..." ~ Bishop Calderon “It seems to them [government officials] that the soldiers are the necessary ones... and that we are of no use, but we are the ones who bear the burden and heats, and who are the ones who are subduing and conquering the land.” ~ Father Francisco Pareja Trader Perceptions The Indians were respected by the traders as clients, but were seen as lower class.
Most influential firm was the British Paton, Leslie and Company When the Spanish left the Floridas, they allowed them to stay of their own will. They exercised their power as a Spanish overseer, keeping the Native Americans under control. They traded everything - clothing, pottery, food, etc. for animal skins and jewelry. There are no primary documents that explain or depict the life of traders and their relationships with the Natives.
Interracial Marriages Interracial Marriages Women were the thread that held this tribe together
Material culture suggest interracial marriages: Feminine v. Masculine Indian v. European Mixed-race descendants: Mestizos Culture After Spanish Arrival: Creolization The first permanent missions were set up by Franciscan Monks, starting with St. Augustine in 1656 Early expeditions into Florida were violent and savage, with little cultural exchange Early Jesuit missionaries came soon after, setting up temporary missions along the Florida and Georgia Coasts By 1602, four missionaries had converted 1200 natives to Christianity. Forced cultural exchange with the Timucua happened during this period. Missionaries learned the local language rather than teach Timucuans Spanish. Timucuan grammar published in 1620, along with three religious works in both Spanish and Timucua. Timucuans began writing letters to each other in their language. Six Timucuan chiefs wrote a letter to the Spanish king in 1688.
Many words borrowed from Spanish into the Timucuan language, especially Christian words.
Principle area of cultural influence was religion. THANK YOU