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Transcript of Canada
for Quebec English Canada: A case for playing hockey and eating round bacon with everybody in the nation Negatives
for Canada Positives for Quebec Protect French Language & Culture
Make it mandatory in schools (unlike now)
Make French official language
Appease French Canadian nationalists
Eliminate costs associated with bilingualism (signs, billboards, education, etc.)
Trade freedom from Canada Reduced Tensions
Less conflict between French/English extremists
Won't have to pay Quebec's portion of debt (historically much higher than national average)
More representation for Western proviences (in both federal government and Supreme Court Economics Land and Resources Ally Russo Erin Richardson History Current Situation The French originally colonized Canada in the 1600s.
After French-Indian War, Treaty of Paris of 1763 gave Britain control of Canadian territories, and an influx of English speakers moved into Canada
English-speaking Protestants vs. French-speaking Roman Catholics. Originally, French-speakers were not allowed to hold office unless they converted to Protestantism.
In 1870, Catholic and French schools were abolished, and violence broke out. Important Parties Federalists vs. Sovereigntists Current Issues Referendum of 1995 "Quebec would become sovereign after having made a formal offer to Canada for a new economic and political partnership" 94% voter turnout
50.4 no, 49.6 yes
The referendum's wording was unclear, so voters were uneasy
Some Francophones were so mad that they threw bricks through the windows of English-owned stores
No major votes for separation have occurred since. Things to keep in mind: Not all Francophones are sovereigntists. 40% voted against independence
Francophones are very proud of their heritage and first identify themselves as Quebecois over Canadians
The coming generation of young Quebecois does not remember the time when the Quebecois were almost treated as second-class citizens virtually unable to use French in public places. French speakers have slowly removed their status as second class citizens. Quebecois: A Case for Separation Reasons for Separation Cultural Insecurities
Influx of immigrants/increase in multiculturalism threatening French culture in Quebec (want to prevent further loss of culture)
Extreme French Catholics dislike the increasing religious plurality in Quebec
Feel they are not treated equally because interests not as well-protected Federalists In favor of keeping Canada united Liberal Party
English-rights Equality Party
Indigenous Canadians Sovereigntists In favor of separating Quebec Parti Quebecois
Many Francophones Pauline Marois Leader of PQ and premier of Quebec since September 2012, first time separatists have had political power in nine years. She defeated Liberal Party leader Jean Charest. At the night club where Marois was giving her victory speech, a man shouting, "Anglos have awakened," came in and shot one person dead. Twentieth Century As Quebec moved away from its agrarian and conservative past, the "Quiet Revolution" started.
Reforms: social and educational infrastructure, nationalization of power companies, and limiting the Catholic church's influence on politics
In the 1960s, Quebec realized that Quebec would never be able to achieve these reforms within Canada's federalist system.
At the 1967 World's Fair in Montreal, French President Charles de Gaulle closed a speech with "Vivre le Quebec libre!"
His speech along with the formation of the Parti Quebecois (PQ) started the movement for Quebec separatism. Parti Quebecois Took power in 1976
Initially wanted to strengthen and protect the use of the French language in the province, making it the official language of government and the courts, as well as the language of business Bloq Quebecois Founded in 1980s
Represent PQ on the national level in Canada's Parliament Daniel Paille, current leader of BQ Justin Trudeau Won leadership of the Liberal Party two weeks ago "We are fed up with leaders who pit Canadians against Canadians, West against East, rich against poor, Quebec against the rest of the country, urban against rural and any other division that you can find in this country. Canadians are looking to us, my friends." Angus-Reid Poll 2009 A public opinion on world issues, not an official vote 4/5 Canadians that voted said that Quebec needs more autonomy in some areas - ie. culture, economy, taxation
Actual sovereignty of Quebec is still in question: 32% voted no, 28% voted yes, 30% voted that Quebec needs greater sovereignty but it does not need to separate. Land International deals Grants Lose communities to other provinces Investment International recognition May lose land May not receive ownership of Federal property owned by Ottawa Separation of People Would lose: 15.5% land area 25% population 23% GNP 15% freshwater 14% mineral
production capability Worsened economic problems Debt -$193.6 billion Atlantic Canada Chain reaction Franco-phones in other provinces Worsen tensions Greater Americanization Conclusion Ignorance, Intolerance, Isolation Water and electricity Pensions Loss of culture Economic Reasons:
Quebec couldn't handle its large portion of Canada's debt alone
Would disrupt trade agreements and patterns Practical Reasons
Some Quebec land has its charter with Canada
Would disrupt non-French Quebec residents
Wouldn't necessarily solve problems or ease tensions Quebec has been a part of Canada for a long time and to secede now would negate years of history and mutual partnership. It is very economically dependent on Canada, and everyone can benefit from the difference in culture.